Sources of Motivation 1
Sources of Motivation
Motivation can be defined as a process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal oriented behaviors. Motivation is the force that drives us to act, whether in something as simple as getting a drink when we are thirsty to studying hard to gain more knowledge (Cherry, 2010). Motivation may come from a number of different places; two important forms of motivation are extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. The way individuals behave also has a close relationship with motivation. The type of motivation may also be visible through ones behavior. Extrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic motivation most often comes from an outside source in the environment rather that from within an individual. People who are extrinsically motivated usually expect some type of reward or incentive such as money, trophies, or praise for performing an activity. Extrinsic motivation may also be negative. Punishment for example is something that may motivate an individual not to do a certain action (Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science, 2005). Extrinsic motivation is behind many of activities ranging from education to the workplace. Parents offering money for good grades is an example of extrinsic motivation. The money is what drives the student to produce the good grades, take that away and they may be less likely to achieve the grades. Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic motivation theory and research has a 40-year history beginning with White who first challenged Skinner's empirical reinforcement theory with
the theory of competence as a crucial element in motivation (White, 1959) . Intrinsic motivation comes more from within an individual (Cherry, 2010). A task may be completed because they are pleased while doing it. Completing a crossword puzzle for example gives some people a pleasant feeling of accomplishment that they enjoy, there is no physical prize involved. “Intrinsic motivation is typically associated with...
References: Cherry, K. (2010). What is Motivation. Retrieved June 22, 2010 from http://psychology.about.com/od/mindex/g/motivation-definition.htm
Huitt, W. (2001). Motivation to Learn: An Overview. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved June 22, 2010 from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topivs.motivations.motivate.html
Motivation. (2005). In Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/wileycs/motivation
White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66, 297-333.
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