7. SHORT TERM SOURCES OF FINANCE
There are various sources available to meet short term needs of finance. The different sources are discussed below:
7.1 Trade Credit: It represents credit granted by suppliers of goods, etc., as an incident of sale. The usual duration of such credit is 15 to 90 days. It generates automatically in the course of business and is common to almost all business operations. It can be in the form of an 'open account' or 'bills payable'.
Trade credit is preferred as a source of finance because it is without any explicit cost and till a business is a going concern it keeps on rotating. Another very important characteristic of trade credit is that it enhances automatically with the increase in the volume of business. 7.2. Accrued Expenses and Deferred Income: Accrued expenses represent liabilities which a company has to pay for the services which it has already received. Such expenses arise out of the day to day activities of the company and hence represent a spontaneous source of finance.
Deferred income, on the other hand, reflects the amount of funds received by a company in lieu of goods and services to be provided in the future. Since these receipts increase a company’s liquidity, they are also considered to be an important source of spontaneous finance.
7.3 Advances from Customers: Manufacturers and contractors engaged in producing or constructing costly goods involving considerable length of manufacturing or construction time usually demand advance money from their customers at the time of accepting their orders for executing their contracts or supplying the goods. This is a cost free source of finance and really useful.
7.4. Commercial Paper: A Commercial Paper is an unsecured money market instrument issued in the form of a promissory note. The Reserve Bank of India introduced the commercial paper scheme in the year 1989 with a view to enabling highly rated corporate borrowers to diversify their sources of short term borrowings and to provide an additional instrument to investors. Subsequently, in addition to the Corporate, Primary Dealers and All India Financial Institutions have also been allowed to issue Commercial Papers. All eligible issuers are required to get the credit rating from Credit Rating Information Services of India Ltd,(CRISIL), or the Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency of India Ltd (ICRA) or the Credit Analysis and Research Ltd (CARE) or the FITCH Ratings India Pvt Ltd or any such other credit rating agency as is specified by the Reserve Bank of India . 7.5 Bank Advances: Banks receive deposits from public for different periods at varying rates of interest. These funds are invested and lent in such a manner that when required, they may Generally cash credit limits are sanctioned against the security of tradable goods by way of pledge or hypothecation. Though these accounts are repayable on demand, banks usually do not recall such advances, unless they are compelled to do so by adverse factors. Hypothecation is an equitable charge on movable goods for an amount of debt where neither possession nor ownership is passed on to the creditor. In case of pledge, the borrower delivers the goods to the creditor as security for repayment of debt. Since the banker, as creditor, is in possession of the goods, he is fully secured and in case of emergency he can fall back on the goods for realisation of his advance under proper notice to the borrower.
(v) Advances against goods: Advances against goods occupy an important place in total bank credit. Goods are security have certain distinct advantages. They provide a reliable source of repayment. Advances against them are safe and liquid. Also, there is a quick turnover in goods, as they are in constant demand. So a banker accepts them as security. Generally goods are charged to the bank either by way of pledge or by way of hypothecation. The term 'goods' includes all forms of movables which are offered to the bank as...
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