Sources for Rrl

Topics: Crime, Criminology, Economics Pages: 7 (1824 words) Published: January 25, 2012
Fajnzylber, Lederman and Loaysa (2002) – (Fajnzylber, P., Lederman, D. and N. Loayza (2000). “Crime and Victimization: An Economic Perspective”, mimeo)

“In fact the economics of crime interacts with different and heterogeneous fields (i.e. sociology, criminology, psychiatry and geography). It is closely related to poverty, social exclusion, wage and income inequality, cultural and family background, level of education and other economic and social factors that may affect individual’s propensity to commit crimes such as cultural characteristics, age and sex. “

A spatial analysis of neighborhood crime in omaha, Nebraska using alternative measures of crime rates. By haifeng zhang and Michael p.peterson. internet journal of criminology 2007

Many researchers – (Ackerman (1998), Anselin (2000), Kershaw and Tseloni (2005), Nagle (1995), Osborn et al (1992). ) Substantial neighborhood crime research has documented that urban crime occurs most frequently in stressful and disadvantaged areas with disproportional concentration of poverty, unemployment and minority populations.

The social disorganization theory argues that socio-economic stress (e.g., poverty, racial/ethnic issues, etc) undermines social control level and strikes the foundations of social cohesion, which results in occurrence of crime. The routine activity approach/theory claims that criminal activities are related to social environment and the behavior patterns of people who live in the neighborhood or community. Unfavorable environment settings (poverty, low education or literacy and unemployment) are frequently used to evaluate the effects of crime correlates.

Fleisher (1963-1966) – (Fleisher, B., (1966), “The Effects of Income Delinquency”, American Economic Review, 56 (1/2). Pp. 118-137)
“The principal theoretical reason for believing that low income increases the tendency to commit crime is that it raises the relative cost of engaging in legitimate activity and that the probable cost of getting caught is relatively low, since they (low-income individuals) view their legitimate lifetime earnings prospects dismally they may expect to lose relatively little earning potential by acquiring criminal records, furthermore, if legitimate earnings are low, the opportunity of lifetime actually spent in delinquent activity, or in jail is also low (Fleisher 1966, p. 120)”

Marc Hooghe, Bram Vanhoutte, Vim Hardyns and Tuba Bircan. Unemployment, Inequality, Poverty and Crime. Spatial Distribution Patterns of Criminal Acts in Belgium 2001-2006. British Journal of Criminology, 51 (1), pp. 1-20. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2011.

A concentration of poverty, a lack of resources and various indicators for social disorganization have all been invoked to explain a concentration of crime. Pg1

Kelly (2000) – (Kelly, M., (2000). “Inequality and Crime”. The Review of Economics and Statitics, 82 (4), pp. 530-539)
“in the economics theory of crime, areas of high inequality place poor individuals who have low returns from market activity next to high-income individuals who have goods worth taking, thereby increasing the returns to time allocated to criminal activity” “strain theory argues that, when faced with the relative success of others around them, unsuccessful individuals feel frustration at their situation. The greater the inequality, the higher this strain and the greater the inducement for low0status individuals to commit crime”

Machin and Meghir (2004) (Machin, Stephen and Costas Meghir. “Crime and Economic Incentives.” National Bureau of Economic Research. 9 Feb 2009 <>)

When there are larger numbers of people with low wage rates, the crime rate usually goes up.

Handbook of crime correlates. Lee Ellis, Kevin Beaver, John Wright. Academic Press, Oxford, UK
Many of the most popular theories of criminal behavior have focused on poverty as a major...
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