RESONANCE: " The property whereby any vibratory system responds with maximum amplitude to an applied force having the a frequency equal to its own."
In english, this means that any solid object that is struck with a sound wave of equal sound wave vibrations will amplitude the given tone. This would explain the reason why some singers are able to break wine glasses with their voice. The vibrations build up enough to shatter the glass. This is called RESONANCE.
Resonance can be observed on a tube with one end open. Musical tones can be produces by vibrating columns of air. When air is blown across the top of the open end of a tube, a wave compression passes along the tube. When it reaches the closed end, it is reflected. The molecules of reflected air meet the molecules of oncoming air forming a node at the closed end. When the air reaches the open end, the reflected compression wave becomes a rarefaction. It bounces back through the tube to the closed end, where it is reflected. the wave has now completed a single cycle. It has passed through the tube four times making the closed tube, one fourth the length of a sound wave. By a continuous sound frequency, standing waves are produced in the tube. This creates a pure tone.
We can use this knowledge of one fourth wavelength to create our own demonstration. It does not only have to be done using wind, but can also be demonstrated using tuning forks. If the frequency of the tuning forks is known, then v=f(wavelength) can find you the length of your air column. Using a tuning fork of frequency 512 c/s, and the speed of sound is 332+0.6T m/s, temperature being, 22 degrees, substitute into the formula.
Calculate 1/4 wavelength
=345.2 (m/s) / 512 (c/s)
1/4 wave. =0.674 (m/c) / 4
= 0.168 m/c
Therefore the pure tone of a tuning fork with...
Bibliography: Granet, Charles; Sound and Hearing; Abelard-Schuman, Toronto; 1965
Freeman, Ira M.; Sound and Ultrasonics; Random House; New york; 1968
Freeman, Ira M.; Physics Made Simple; Doubleday, New York; 1965
Jones, G.R.; Acoustics; English Univ. Press; London; 1967
White, Harvey E; Physics and Music; Saunders College, Philadelphia; 1980
Funk and Wagnall; Standard Desk Dictionary; Harper Row, USA; 1985
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