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Solid Waste Management

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A study of municipal solid waste management system adopted by various municipalities

Presented to:
Prof. Dr. Dev Raj Adhikari
Faculty of Management
Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur

Prepared by:
DamodarNiraula
Laxman Raj Kandel
Kishore Dhungana
Nischal Thapa
YogendraAdhikari
Master of Philosophy in Management

August, 2013
Tribhuvan University
Kirtipur, Kathmandu

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

Background

Waste is a resource that is unutilized or a resource not in right condition. Vegetables that we buy are converted into food. In this process, some part of the vegetables are cooked whereas some are thrown, the thrown part is waste. When we eat those vegetables, our body consumes the needed food and converts it into different types of body cells. In this process too, some food is converted into waste and the body excretes it. After passage of time the body itself dies and is converted into waste. In this manner we can observe that waste is a phase-wise by-product. Proper utilization of waste requires different methods at different levels because after each level, waste changes its form.

Solid wastes are the wastes that are not in liquid form and have no value to the person who is responsible for it . Solid waste is any byproduct of human activities which tends to increase with rapid urbanization, improved living standards and changing consumption pattern . Synonyms for solid waste can be garbage, trash, rubbish etc. The term municipal solid waste refers to wastes from houses, streets and public places, shops, offices and hospitals, which are very often the responsibility of municipal or other government authorities . These solid wastes have become recurring features in our urban environment .

This research is going to focus on the waste produced by households of the Kathmandu valley and other wastes like industrial waste shall lie outside the boundary of this research.A more sustainable waste management system is a system that contributes to increasing efficiency in the use of natural resources, and to decreasing environmental burdens.

Solid waste management is therefore a critical component within urban sanitation and it is also one of the most important and resource intensive services provided by municipalities….. Effective solid waste management is more than just cleaning the streets or collecting waste and dumping of the collected waste, as practiced by most municipalities. It requires efficient combination of various components of solid waste management in an integrated manner. Integrated solid waste management is therefore a process of optimizing the waste management system as a whole with application of a variety of suitable technologies .

There are various stages in solid waste management. They are:

Prevention and Reduction: This is considered to be the first and the most effective manner. This does not solve the entire problem but helps in reducing the burden to the authority responsible for the respective management. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics. In this stage, households work towards reducing the waste.Reuse: This step includes using the waste again. This process needs some basic cleaning and repairing activities.

Reuse and Recycling: Recycling requires a scientific treatment process and usually is more costly that reusing. After multiple reuse (in some cases, even ;after first use) wastes have to go through scientific process to turn it into usable resource.As, the play a critical role in waste recycle and reuse process, even the rag pickersneed to be taught discipline, punctuality and regularity, and have to be given health education and monetary help .

Treatment and Disposal: This is the last stage in each cycle of waste management. Many times, the resources are not usable with the available technology and have to be dumped off. This has to be done in a safe place because of the various types of hazards it creates.Proper utilization of the resources can add to the resources of the authorities and help in economic prosperity of the related authorities .

Rational

Municipal Solid Waste Management is one of the most challenging tasks that Kathmandu Metropolitan City Office has to undertake. It is widely believed that the traditional waste management system used in the Kathmandu valley has failed . Identification of the current scenario of MSWM is undoubtedly the most important step towards the solution of the current problem. It makes every sense to measure the efficiency of the current solid waste management system used in Kathmandu valley. Additionally, comparing this system with the systems used by other municipalities around the world can also help in finding the appropriate solution.

Objectives

The objectives of this research are as follows:
i. To examine the current solid waste management system in Kathmandu Valley. ii. To find the involvement of various sectors in solid waste management system. iii. To compare the municipal solid waste management system with various municipalities, i.e. Delhi, Nairobi and New York with Kathmandu.

Problem Statement

Although proper management of solid waste is essential for urban sanitation, many municipalities are struggling with this problem . Municipalities are spending significant resources to address this problem, but the overall situation is far from satisfactory and rapid haphazard urban growth is making the problem worse . The private sector has significant contribution in finding the solution to this problem. However, the private sector has sometimes found to be involved in adding to the current problem by dumping the waste in river banks and other irresponsible areas. This research intends to identify the current waste management system adopted in Kathmandu valley.

Theoretical Framework

A large number of modeling tools and approaches that can be used for supporting waste management decisions at different levels in society have been developed. Examples include Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and different types of Material Flow Analysis (MFA), Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA), Life Cycle Costing (LCC), different types of optimizing models, etc.. The model offered in this research is modified material flow analysis. In this model, the process from generation of solid to the disposal through process is analyzed.

The detailed material flow analysis is shown in the diagram below:

Information Needed

Variables
Information Needed

Inflow Management System
Waste per person per day
Composition of solid waste
Waste collected compared to waste generated
Private sector involvement in collection of waste
Financial resources available for solution of MSWM
Reuse
and
Recycle System
Percentage of waste reused
Percentage of waste recycled
Proportion of private sector involvement in recycle
Proportion of private sector involvement in reuse
Disposal and Treatment System
Number and Area of landfill sites
Accessibility of landfill sites
Emission caused due to disposal and treatment

Limitations

There are a few limitations to this report. They can be listed as follows:
Lack of expertise in the technical (chemical composition of waste) aspect of research might create some obstacle.
Very less research has been carried out in this field that actually aims at implementation aspect. Most of the previous researches are descriptive in nature. Therefore, appropriate literature review could not be carried out.
Most organizations were hesitant in providing information. Significant involvement of informal entities hindered in obtaining relevant data.
Finding key informants who could provide relevant data was a difficult task.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Waste is an unavoidable by-product of human activities. Economicdevelopment, urbanization and improved living standards in cities increase the quantity and complexity of generated solid waste. If accumulated, itleads to degradation of urban environment, stresses natural resources andleads to health problems (CPCB, 2000; NEERI, 1994; UN, 2000). Cities inthe world are facing a high level of pollution; the situation in developingcountries is more acute, this is partly caused by inadequate provision ofbasic services likewater supply, sanitation facilities, transport infrastructureandwaste collection (UNCHSHabitat, 2001).Municipal corporations of the developing countries are not able to handle the increasing quantity of waste,which leads to uncollected waste on roads and other public places.

A large number of methods, approaches and modeling tools that can be used for supporting waste management decisions at different levels in society have been developed. Some of these focus on the environmental performance of waste management systems, e.g. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Other tools focus on the economic performance of the systems: Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA), Life Cycle Costing (LCC), different types of optimizing models, etc. Other types of economic models such as Equilibrium models may also include waste management aspects. Also energy systems models may include waste as a separate fuel and thus be relevant for waste management systems. The sheer number of different methods that are available may be confusing and there is therefore a need to characterize the approaches in order to better understand the appropriateness of using different tools in different situations.

Conceptual modeling is traditionally connected to the fundamental design of things. Sketches and drawings are often used for gathering ideas and developing them as well as being a process for which innovativeness is a common characteristic. Conceptual modeling tools are usually made for this purpose, to support creativity in the way of offering a tool for describing one’s thoughts in the form of concepts. Furthermore, developed conceptual modeling tools can also provide a formal method for narrowing the search space of possible design alternatives, and to lead into technically or economically feasible design decisions in a shorter time span.

Material flow analysis (MFA) is an excellent tool in supporting decisionmaking regarding waste management problems. MFA allows the calculation ofthe amount and composition of wastes by balancing the process of wastegeneration and the process of waste treatment. MFA can be used to analyzewastes flow because inputs-outputs of waste treatment can be linked.

Determining the amount and types of waste generated within a region is of fundamental significance for waste management planning and control. Data gathered with regard toamount, waste type and origin are important when designing a waste data collection system.A waste management system cannot be successful without complete and timely waste data thatreflect the current waste situation.

Research Methodology

This study has utilized a wide range of data through varied sources. In-depth interviews were conducted to obtain relevant information. Key informant interview was targeted to obtain reliable information. Key informants in this study includes Chief Environment Management Division of Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC), Program Coordinator of Poverty Reduction of Informal Workers in Solid Waste Management Sector (PRISM Project) - Practical Action, Secretary & Executive Director of Nepal Pollution Control & Environment Management Center, President/Executive Director of Environment Conservation Initiative, President of Environment Preservation Center, President of Environment Conservation Initiative Nepal , and President of Creative Environment Preservation Center. Interview with Junior Officer- Research & Development Department of BSP-Nepal was also conducted.

Additionally, other in-depth interviews were conducted with other concerned parties like waste collectors, segregators, households etc. Additionally observations have been conducted to cross examine the information provided by the concerned local authority.

On the other hand, various secondary sources have been used to collect additional information. Journals, books and wide internet search have been used to identify and obtain relevant information. Secondary sources is of great importance in this case because physical investigation of the cities for which the comparative analysis had to be conducted required high level of funding.

This research also has utilized various other different types of research methods. It has utilized comparative research technique in order to compare the situation of municipal solid waste management between three identified municipalities i.e. Delhi, Cairo, and New York with the solid waste management situation of Kathmandu Metropolitan City.

Descriptive techniques have been used to explain the existing MSWM system in various different places.

This study is also based on exploratory research because it tries to identify the factors that are relevant while comparing the municipal solid waste management system. Various different available systems for the study were evaluated and by combining different available methods a modified material flow method was developed.

A comparative analysis chart is developed to compare the different MSWM. This chart not only helps in analysis, but also helps in providing suggestion to the concerned authority regarding the areas that require attention in MSWM.
Findings and analysis

Findings
The current study has helped to develop a framework that helps to identify the current MSWM of Kathmandu valley. It has been identified that the private sector involvement in MSWM is prominent. The municipality plays a significant role only in disposal of solid waste. KMC has 17 large vehicles (Tippers), 54 small vehicles, 3 dozers, 2 excavators, 5 loaders and a compactor that plays direct role in MSWM. Additionally, it has 25 small on reserve.

Modified Material Flow Analysis in Kathmandu Valley
This research is directed towards study of flow of solid waste. The focus of the study is directed towards household solid waste.

The research has highlighted that there is a significant role of private sector in solid waste management. The Waste Management Act 2068 has classified NGOs/CBOs, Firms, and Private Companies as private sector. However, a wide range of involvement of informal sector was also found to be prevalent.

Events
KMC
Private Sector
Specialist view
Inflow Management System
The waste per capita per day is 300 gram in KMC.
Segregation of MSW at household (HH) level is not effective.
HH collection is a major constrain.
Higher level of participation of public sector in MSWM. The waste per capita per day is 500 gram in KMC.
Segregation of MSW at household (HH) level is effective. Only 11% MSW should be taken to landfill site.
Lack of recognition is major constraint.
Higher private sector involvement in MSWM.

The waste per capita per day is 350 gram in KMC.
Politicization of the issue related to MSWM is the major hurdle.

Reuse and Recycle System
The involvement of public sector is negligible.
Unknown about private sector involvement.
22% of the material can be reused by the private sector.
67% of the MSW can be minimized through compost plants. Current level is low.
Commercialization is required.

Treatment and Disposal System
Landfill site is too far.
Treatment before disposal is not carried out.
Informal sector involvement in segregation and processing is found at the landfill site.
Water leaches is extreme problem under current system.
Mere 11% of the current MSW shall be needed to dispose at landfill site, if properly managed.

Waste to energy system is sustainable solution to MSWM.
Abundant opportunity in biogas development system.
Commercialization is required.

Constraints identified by the key informants
KMC
Private Sector
Expert
Distance of landfill site.
Number of landfill site.
Lack of adequate finance.
Local people resistance to compost plant at Teku.
Bureaucratic hurdle due to lack of elected representative.
Lack of land for processing of MSWM within KMC.
Lack of social and government recognition.
Lack of coordination among the waste managing agencies.
Lack of comprehensive policy governing all MSWM.
High politicization of waste is the major problem.
Non-commercialization of waste management system.
Lack of expertise in management of solid waste.

Comparative study of KMC with other municipalities around the world

Variables
Information Needed
Kathmandu
New York delhi cairo

Inflow Management System
Waste Per Person Per day
Collection efficiency % of solid waste collected
Private Sector involvement

Financial Resources Available
0.3
60-80%

Minimum but growing

NPR 300 mil
1.87
100%

75% of landfill

$2.2 billion (entire state)
0.8
70%

300-400 crore
0.8
Very Low

Very high but small sizes and scattered

Recycle and Reuse System
% of waste recycled
% of waste reused
Number of companies involved in waste reuse
Number of companies involved in waste recycle
Informal Sector
Informal Sector

N/A

N/A
20%
Very less
Negligible
Negligible
High among collected

High among collected

Numerous Zabaleen

Numerous Zabaleen
Disposal and Treatment System
Number and Area of landfill sites
Emission caused due to disposal and treatment
One
27 landfill sites

0
Very Hazardous

Major findings of the comparison
Among the selected cities, Kathmandu had the least per capita solid waste per day per person.
New York had the most efficient solid waste collection system where almost everything that was generated by the citizens was managed by the concerned authority. However, they had the largest budget as well.
Even though the solid waste management of Cairo was one of the least effective, they still reused and recycled certain amount of solid waste.
New York recycled almost 20% of the overall solid waste.

Conclusion

Lack of appropriate landfill sites have emerged as the main problem of MSWM in Kathmandu.
Lack of landfill sites have created a problem of segregation of solid waste and thus created a problem in recycle and reuse.
Solid Waste is yet not treated as resource in many cities. This view has to be changed.

Bibliography

ACP-EU Cooperation Programme in Higher Edication. (2007). A program of the ACP Group of States, with financial assistance of the European Union. Brussels : Edulink.
Devkota, D. C., Watanabe, K., & Dangol, V. (2004). Need for Alternative Approaches in Solid Waste Management - Case Study Kathmandu Valley. 30th WEDC International Conference, (pp. 79-82). Lao.
Edelman, D. J. (1997). City Wide Best Practices in Solid Waste Management, Collection, Transportation and Disposal. Rotterdam: Yvonne Verdonk.
Environment and Public Health Organzation. (2008). Solid Waste Management in Nepal. ENPHO, Kathmandu.
Finnveden, G., Bjorklund, A., Ekvall, T., & Moberg, A. (2007). Models for Waste Management: Possibilities and Limitations. Environment Strategies Research . Stockholm, Sweden.
Garg, A., Kumar, V., & Verma, V. (2007). Public Private Partnership for Solid Waste Management in Delhi: A Case Study. Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management, (pp. 552-559). Chhenai.
Gidarakos, E., Havas, G., & Ntzamlis, P. (2005). Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete. Waste Management .
Momodu, N. S., Dimuna, K. O., & Dimuna, J. E. (2011). Mitigating the Impact o Solid Wastes in Urban Centers in Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology , 125-133.
Nurminen, J., & Pongracz, E. (2005). Conceptual Model of Environmental Management System. Oulu: University of Oulu Department of Process and Environment Engineering.
Plubcharoensuk, P., Nakayama, H., & Shimaoka, T. (2008, June). Material Flow Analysis for Industrial Waste Management in Thailand. Memories of the Faculty of Engineering . Thailand: Kyushu University.
Rathi, S. (2007). Optimization Model for Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management in Mumbai, India. Environment and Development Economics , 106-121.
Swedish Environmental Research Institute. (2008). Towards Sustainable Waste Management. Goiteborg.
WaterAid. (2008). Solid Waste Management in Nepal. Kathmandu: WaterAid.
Zurbrugg, C. (2003). Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries. EAWAG SANDEC .

Part One: (Copy from Concept Paper)
Introduction:
Rational
Objectives
Problem Statement
Theoretical Framework
Limitation
Part Two: (Have to work – 3-4 pages) Review of Literature: ROL Should be related to research framework Research Methodology should be based on ROL
Part Three: Research Methodology Research Design
Population and Sampling Quantitative and Qualitative Tools
Comparative study – comparing four municipalities
Primary source – Interview and observation,
Secondary Source – Internet research based, books
Descriptive Study – Identification of variables that can measure effectiveness of MSWM
Identification or selection of topic and reasons
Identification of variable through literature review
Interview with KMC and identification of major factors and confirmation of the variables
Identification of research entities and collection of relevant data from different sources
Preparation of comparative study chart
Descriptive and Comparative Analysis
Part Four:

Analysis Description (Major Findings) Conclusion (Should be aligned with literature review, theorizing the findings, try to find association with previous literature)

Bibliography: ACP-EU Cooperation Programme in Higher Edication. (2007). A program of the ACP Group of States, with financial assistance of the European Union. Brussels : Edulink. Devkota, D. C., Watanabe, K., & Dangol, V. (2004). Need for Alternative Approaches in Solid Waste Management - Case Study Kathmandu Valley. 30th WEDC International Conference, (pp. 79-82). Lao. Edelman, D. J. (1997). City Wide Best Practices in Solid Waste Management, Collection, Transportation and Disposal. Rotterdam: Yvonne Verdonk. Environment and Public Health Organzation. (2008). Solid Waste Management in Nepal. ENPHO, Kathmandu. Finnveden, G., Bjorklund, A., Ekvall, T., & Moberg, A. (2007). Models for Waste Management: Possibilities and Limitations. Environment Strategies Research . Stockholm, Sweden. Garg, A., Kumar, V., & Verma, V. (2007). Public Private Partnership for Solid Waste Management in Delhi: A Case Study. Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management, (pp. 552-559). Chhenai. Gidarakos, E., Havas, G., & Ntzamlis, P. (2005). Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete. Waste Management . Momodu, N. S., Dimuna, K. O., & Dimuna, J. E. (2011). Mitigating the Impact o Solid Wastes in Urban Centers in Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology , 125-133. Nurminen, J., & Pongracz, E. (2005). Conceptual Model of Environmental Management System. Oulu: University of Oulu Department of Process and Environment Engineering. Plubcharoensuk, P., Nakayama, H., & Shimaoka, T. (2008, June). Material Flow Analysis for Industrial Waste Management in Thailand. Memories of the Faculty of Engineering . Thailand: Kyushu University. Rathi, S. (2007). Optimization Model for Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management in Mumbai, India. Environment and Development Economics , 106-121. Swedish Environmental Research Institute. (2008). Towards Sustainable Waste Management. Goiteborg. WaterAid. (2008). Solid Waste Management in Nepal. Kathmandu: WaterAid. Zurbrugg, C. (2003). Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries. EAWAG SANDEC .

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