History of free space power transmission:
The post-war history of research on free-space power transmission is well documented by William C. Brown, who was a pioneer of practical microwave power transmission. It was he who first succeeded in demonstrating a microwave-powered helicopter in 1964. A power conversion device from microwave to DC, called a rectenna, was invented and used for the microwave-powered helicopter. The first rectenna was composed of 28 half-wave dipoles terminated in a bridge rectifier using point-contact semiconductor diodes. Later, the point contact semiconductor diodes were replaced by silicon Schottky-barrier diodes, which raised the microwave-to-DC conversion efficiency from 40 % to 84 %. The highest record of 84 % efficiency was attained in the demonstration of microwave power transmission in 1975 at the JPL Goldstone Facility. Power was successfully transferred from the transmitting large parabolic antenna dish to the distant rectenna site over a distance of 1.6 km. The DC output was 30 kW.
An important milestone in the history of microwave power transmission was the three-year study program called the DOE/ NASA Satellite Power System Concept Development and Evaluation Program, started in 1977. The extensive study of the SPS ended in 1980, producing a 670 page summary document. The concept of the SPS was first proposed by P. E. Glaser in 1968 to meet both space-based and earth-based power needs. The SPS will generate electric power of the order of several hundreds to thousands of megawatts using photovoltaic cells of sizable area, and will transmit the generated power via a microwave beam to the receiving rectenna site. Among many technological key issues, which must be overcome before the SPS realization, microwave power transmission (MPT) is one of the most important key research issues. The problem contains not only the technological development microwave of power transmission with high efficiency and high safety, but also scientific analysis of microwave impact onto the space plasma environment.
Why to use sps?
The SPS concept arose because space has several major advantages over earth for the collection of solar power. There is no air in space, so the satellites would receive somewhat more intense sunlight, unaffected by weather. In a geosynchronous orbit an SPS would be illuminated over 99% of the time. The SPS would be in Earth's shadow on only a few days at the spring and fall equinoxes; and even then for a maximum of an hour and a half late at night when power demands are at their lowest. This allows expensive storage facilities necessary to earth-based system to be avoided.
In most senses the SPS concept is simpler than most power systems here on Earth. This includes the structure needed to hold it together, which in orbit can be considerably lighter due to the lack of gravity. Some early studies looked at solar furnaces to drive conventional turbines, but as the efficiency of the solar cell improved, this concept eventually became impractical. In either case, another advantage of the design is that waste heat is re-radiated back into space, instead of warming the biosphere as with conventional sources
The Solar Power Satellite (SPS) concept would place solar power plants in orbit above Earth, where they would convert sunlight to electricity and beam the power to ground-based receiving stations. The ground-based stations would be connected to today's regular electrical power lines that run to our homes, offices and factories here on Earth.
Why put solar power plants in space? The sun shines 24 hours a day in space, as if it were always noontime at the equator with no clouds and no atmosphere. Unlike solar power on the ground, the economy isn't vulnerable to cloudy days, and extra generating capacity and storage aren't needed for our nighttime needs. There is no variation of power supply during...
References: ➢ Hiroshi Matsumoto, “Microwave Power Transmission from Space and Related Nonlinear Plasma Effects” Space and Radio Science Symposium: 75th Anniversary of URSI, 26-27 April 1995, Brussels, Belgium, pp. 155-190.
➢ W.C. Brown, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. MTT-32, 1230 (1984).
➢ Satellite Power System Concept Development and Evaluation Program July 1977 - August 1980. DOE/ET-0034, February 1978. 62 pages
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