Solar Energy

Topics: Solar cell, Photovoltaics, Solar energy Pages: 10 (3312 words) Published: June 25, 2013
History of Solar Energy

1767, First Solar Collector
In the year 1767 a Swiss scientist named Horace-Benedict de Saussure created the first solar collector – an insulated box covered with three layers of glass to absorb heat energy. Saussure’s box became widely known as the first solar oven, reaching temperatures of 230 degrees fahrenheit. 1839, Photovolataic Effect Defined
In 1839 a major milestone in the evolution of solar energy happened with the defining of the photovoltaic effect. A French scientist by the name Edmond Becquerel discovered this using two electrodes placed in an electrolyte. After exposing it to the light, electricity increased. 1873, Photo Conductivity of Selenium
In 1873, Willoughby Smith discovered photoconductivity of a material known as selenium. The discovery was to be further extended in 1876 when the same man discovered that selenium produces solar energy. Attempts were made to construct solar cells using selenium. The cell did not work out well but an important lesson was learned – that solid could convert light into electricity without heat or moving parts. The discovery laid a strong base for future developments in the history of solar power. 1883-1891 Light Discoveries and Solar Cells
During this time several inventions were made that contributed to the evolution of solar energy use. First in 1893 the first solar cell was introduced. The cell was to be wrapped with selenium wafers. Later in 1887 there was the discovery of the ultraviolet ray capacity to cause a spark jump between two electrodes. This was done by Heinrich Hertz. Later, in 1891 the first solar heater was created. 1908, Copper Collector
In 1908 William J. Baileys invented a copper collector which was constructed using copper coils and boxes. The copper collector was an improvement of the earlier done collector but the only difference was the use of copper insulation. The improvements of the invention are being used to manufacture today’s equipments. 1916, Photoelectric Effect
With Albert Einstein publishing a paper on photoelectric effect in 1905 still there was no experimental evidence about it. In 1916 a scientist known as Robert Millikan evidenced the photoelectric effect experimentally. 1947, Solar Popularity in the US
Following the Second World War, solar power equipment started being popular among many people in the USA. There was a huge demand of solar energy equipment.

1958, Solar Energy In Space
Solar power was used to power space exploration equipment such as satellites and space stations. This was the first commercial use of solar energy. 1959-1970, Efficiency of Solar Cells and Cost
During the period between 1959 and 1970 there was major discussion about the efficiency of solar cells and reduction of costs. Up to that time the efficiency of the solar cells was only 14% and was not comparable to the high cost of producing cells. However in the 1970′s, Exxon Corporation designed an efficient solar panel which was less costly to manufacture. This was a major milestone in the history of solar energy. 1977 Governments Embrace Solar Energy
In 1977 the US government embraced the use of solar energy by launching the Solar Energy Research Institute. Other governments across the world soon followed. 1981, Solar Powered Aircraft
In 1981, Paul Macready produced the first solar powered aircraft. The aircraft used more than 1600 cells, placed on its wings. The aircraft flew from France to England. 1982, Solar Powered Cars
In the year 1982 there was the development of the first solar powered cars in Australia. 1986-1999 Solar Power Plants
Evolution of large scale solar energy plants with advancement being made in each phase. By the year 1999 the largest plant was developed producing more than 20 kilowatts. 1999, Breakthroughs in Solar Cell Efficiency
The most efficient solar cell was developed, with a photovoltaic efficiency of 36 percent. 2008, Subsidy Reduction in Spain
Due to the global financial crisis in the year 2008, the...

References: [1] Branker, K., Pathak, M, J, M., and Pearce, J, M. (2011). A review of solar photovoltaic levelized cost of electricity. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15, 4470-4482.
[2] Badcock, J., and Lenzen, M. (2010). Subsidies for electricity-generating technologies: A review. Energy Policy, 38, 5038-5047.
[3] National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2009). National PV cost values, for: NARUC 7-member consortium for PV resource characterization. Colorado: Author.
[4] Barbose, G., Darghouth, N., Wiser, R. (2010). Tracking the sun III: The installed cost of photovoltaics in the United States from 1998-2009. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/1w76j75q#
[5] Bloombergy New Energy Finance. Solar surge drives record clean energy investment in 2011. Retrieved from https://www.bnef.com/PressReleases/view/180
[6] Green Tech Media. Top Ten Solar (April 2009). Retreived from http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/top-ten-solar-companies-3794/N4/
[7] Green Tech Media. Surviving as a solar manufacturer in today’s market. Retrieved from http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/Surviving-as-a-Solar-Manufacture-in-Todays-Market/
[8] Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA). Solar energy facts: Year in review 2011. Retrieved from http://www.seia.org/galleries/pdf/Solar_Energy_Facts_Year-in-Review_2011.pdf
[9] Green Tech Media. Visionary roundtable: Navigating the U.S. PV market. with Shayle Kann (GTM Research), Alan Yuan (Astronergy), Rhone Resch (Solar Energy Industries Association), Tim E. Hemig (NRG Energy), Todd Glass (Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=8QRQO88dDoI
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