CHAPTER – 1 INTRODUCTION
From the starting of construction work, the imprtotance of enhancing soil properties has come to the light. Ancient civilizations of the Chinese, Indian, Romans and Incas utilized various methods to improve soil strength etc., and these methods were so effective that they are still used in constructing buildings and roads . Here, in this project ,Our whole work revolve around the properties of soil and its stability . Basically for any structure , the foundation has the priority importance not strong foundation means not safe structure and the foundation depends a lot on the soil nearby . Soil with higher stability has more strong foundation and thus having very strong and durable structure . So in short we can say that the whole structure on any construction related things indirectly or directly depends on the soil stability . Thus for any construction work we need to have proper knowledge about soil and its properties and the factor affecting the soil . After the commencement of Modern era in India after 1970’s the shortage of land comes infront. We had to do construction over the weak soil , thus it became necessity to improve the strength of the soil at the construction site and then various method comes to improve the soil stability . Lots of further work is done after that in this field and addition of Calcium Carbide Residue and Fly Ash is the new way for this and it seems quite beneficial as these are the waste products of factories and can cause environmental pollution. Calcium Carbide Residue (CCR): It is by-product of Acetylene gas Production Process which is a slurry that mainly contains Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH) ) along with SiO , CaCO and other metal oxides. In India, there 2 2 3
are many Acetylene Gas factories and PVC Chemical Plants which produces CCR in large amount which is mainly dumped in the landfills causing environmental pollutions due to its alkalinity. CCR production is described in the following equation:
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CCR :
CHEMICAL CaO COMP.(%) CCR 70.78
FLY ASH : It is one of the residues formed in combustion, and consists of the fine particles that rise with the flue gases. Fly ash is captured from the chimneys of coal-fired power plants . It mainly consists of SiO and Al O due to which it is pozzolanic in nature. It has a large uniformity coefficient 2 2 3
and it consists of clay sized particles .The fly ash manufacture in India is around 100 million ton per year which pollutes river water that endanger aquatic and human life.It has pH somewhere between 10 and 12, a medium to strong base. This can also cause lung damage if present in sufficient quantities.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FLYASH :
CHEMICAL CaO COMP.(%) CCR 12.15
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Previous Work done before our Project :
The mixture of CCR and FA produces a cementitious material because CCR contains a lot of Ca( OH) , while FA is a pozzolanic material which helps in increasing binder content in soil results 2
in strengthening of soil .
(2001) have reported the possibility of using CCR and fly ash to
nonplasticy, silty sand. The study of soil stabilization with a mixture of CCR and pozzolanic materials is an engineering, economic, and environmental challenge for geotechnical engineers and researchers.
Chai Jaturapitakkul and Boonmark Roongreung (2003 ) investigated that the ratio of calcium carbide residue to rice husk ash of 50:50 by weight obtains the highest compressive strength of mortar. The compressive strength of mortar could be as high as 15.6 MPa at curing age of 28 days and increased to 19.1 MPa at 180 days.
Y. J. Du , Y. Y. Zhang , and S. Y. Liu (2009 ) investigated...
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