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Soicla Psychology Test 2

By stevefury Oct 11, 2011 2232 Words
Social Psychology
Test 2

Put answers on the appropriate red scan tron. Be sure to bubble in your n number in the space marked “ID”. Bring the scan tron to the classroom between 10 and 10:50 Monday, October 03. DO NOT TURN TEST INTO PSYCHOLOGY OFFICE. Late tests are not accepted.

1) A favorable or unfavorable evaluation reaction toward something or someone is what social psychologists call a(n)

A. feeling.
B. cognition.
C. attitude.
D. behavioral tendency.

2) In 1964, Leon Festinger concluded that the evidence to date

E. did not show that attitudes guide behaviors.
F. showed that attitudes guide behaviors.
G. was irrelevant to the attitude-behavior relation.
H. showed that attitudes and behaviors varied together.

3) In 1969, social psychologist Allan Wicker completed a review of dozens of research studies and concluded that people’s expressed attitudes _______ predicted their varying behaviors.

I. hardly ever
J. often
K. strongly
L. always

4) The finding that religious attitudes can predict the total quantity of religious behaviors over time is an example of

M. moral hypocrisy.
N. the power of the situation over time.
O. the ABCs of attitudes.
P. the principle of aggregation.

5) Although you may spend the evening surfing the Internet rather than studying, you have generally been quite a disciplined student throughout your academic career and have always held the attitude that studying is important. The relationship between your studying behavior and your attitude toward studying can best be described by which social psychological term?

Q. moral hypocrisy
R. behavioral inconsistency
S. the ABCs of attitudes
T. the principle of aggregation

6) Diener and Wallbom (1976) found that when research participants were instructed to stop working on a problem after a bell sounded, 71 percent continued working when left alone. How many continued to work after the bell if they were made self-aware by working in front of a mirror?

U. 70 percent
V. 43 percent
W. 31 percent
X. 7 percent

7) The effect of _______ on _______ was vividly demonstrated in Zimbardo’s (1971) classic study of a simulated prison.

Y. attitudes; behaviors
Z. roles; attitudes
[. roles; behaviors
\. attitudes; roles

8) Research on how behavior affects our attitudes suggests all the findings EXCEPT that

]. people don’t adapt what they say to please their listeners. ^. people are quicker to tell people good news rather than bad. _. people adjust their message toward their listener’s position. `. people adjust their message to their listeners, and having done so, believe the altered message.

9) The fact that 76 percent of Californians agreed to install a huge ugly sign in their front yard after first being approached with a small request two weeks earlier exemplifies the _______ phenomenon.

a. foot-in-the-door
b. low-ball
c. compliance
d. conformity

10) Interested in purchasing a digital camera, you find one priced extremely low. As you are about to purchase the camera, you find that it does not come with a power cord, memory card, or battery. You purchase all of these separately. The total cost surpasses what another store had listed the camera as at a higher price, but included all the accessories. You have been a victim of the _______ technique.

e. foot-in-the-door
f. low-ball
g. compliance
h. conformity

11) If you are asked to participate in a research study without knowing the start time, you are _______ to participate than if you were aware that the study began at 7 am.

i. less likely
j. more likely
k. just as likely
l. much less likely

12) Research indicates that harming an innocent victim, especially voluntarily, leads one to

m. feel increasingly guilty.
n. disparage the victim to justify the behavior.
o. act more kindly toward others.
p. become more aggressive toward others.

13) Impression management is to _______ as cognitive dissonance is to _______.

q. overjustification; insufficient justification
r. Bem; Festinger
s. self-monitoring; self-presentation
t. self-presentation; self-justification

14) Although you were opposed to the war with Iraq, your attitude changed when you were required to report on the justifications for it at your job as a newspaper journalist. Which theory best explains the change in your attitude?

u. self-presentation theory
v. self-consistency theory
w. cognitive dissonance theory
x. self-perception theory

15) Though she is opposed to capital punishment, Lisa is asked to give a speech in favor of it to round out a class debate. Dissonance theory predicts that her true attitude will undergo the most change if she

A. makes a speech implying capital punishment is really wrong. B. agrees to give the speech but only if she tells both sides. C. agrees to give the speech without special incentives.
D. agrees to give the speech for a large reward.

16) If you are studying because you want to do well in a course and truly want to understand the material, you are more likely to want to study in the future as compared to those students who view studying as compulsory. Your situation is an example of how

y. attitudes follow behaviors.
z. behaviors follow attitudes.
{. attitudes follow behaviors for which we feel some responsibility. |. behaviors follow attitudes for which we feel some responsibility.

17) As a teenager, your parents always forced you to clean your room. Now that you are living on your own, you feel no motivation to clean, as there are no parents around to nag you. This is an example of how

}. attitudes follow behaviors.
~. behaviors follow attitudes.
. attitudes follow behaviors for which we feel some responsibility. . behaviors follow attitudes for which we feel some responsibility.

18) Human kinship is to the _______ perspective as social diversity is to the _______ perspective.

. evolutionary; cultural
. cognitive; psychoanalytical
. humanistic; cultural
. biological; humanistic

19) Zoe has lived in the United States all of her life, yet her Greek grandmother made sure that Zoe was fluent in the Greek language so she would understand the Greek way of life. What has Zoe’s grandmother passed on to her?

. a belief
. a norm
. a culture
. a value

20) Seven-year-old Mary says “Thank you” after opening each birthday present she receives because her family considers it to be proper behavior. This best illustrates the influence of a

. norm.
. schema.
. role.
. stereotype.

21) The buffer space we like to maintain around our bodies is called our personal

. zone.
. space.
. place.
. distance.

22) Those living _______ prefer more personal distance space than those living _______.

. closer to the equator; farther away from the equator . in Central America; in Iceland
. in Latin America; in North America
. farther away from the equator; closer to the equator

23) Although there are many unoccupied tables in the restaurant, Rudolph decides to sit at the same table in the chair right next to James. James feels uncomfortable because Rudolph has violated

. his social role.
. his personal space.
. Brown’s universal norm.
. the personal rights taboo.

24) Brown (1987) reported that in many languages, forms of address, such as the distinction between formal and informal varieties of “you,” communicate not only social distance, but also

. social complexity.
. social status.
. personal space.
. fate control.

25) Some norms are culture-specific, while others are universal. The universality of some norms is accounted for by

. the force of culture.
. genetic diversity.
. cultural similarities.
. genetic predispositions.

26) Research has found that _______ are generally superior at decoding others’ emotional messages.

. the young
. the elderly
. men
. women

27) During a conversation, men are more likely than women to do all of the following EXCEPT

. talk assertively.
. interrupt intrusively.
. stare more.
. smile more.

28) Research on the differences in men and women show all EXCEPT

. men take more risks.
. men tend to be more democratic, women autocratic.
. men tend to be more autocratic, women democratic.
. men tend to be more directive and task-focused.

29) You read about an unsolved murder in the newspaper. Given what you have learned in social psychology, you can reasonably predict a(n) _______ committed the murder.

. man
. woman
. provoked individual
. innocent bystander

30) Evolutionary psychologists suggest that males are sexually assertive while females are more selective of sexual partners because

. males outnumber females.
. each strategy is likely to promote gene survival.
. males and females are socialized differently.
. of differences in brain chemistry.

31) Pat has qualities like assertiveness, a traditionally masculine trait, as well as nurturance, a quality associated with traditional femininity. Pat could be described as

. gender-ambivalent.
. role-conflicted.
. androgynous.
. gender-diffused.

32) The term gender role refers to

. enduring behaviors, attitudes, and traditions transmitted from one generation to the next. . a set of behavior expectations for males or females. . a rule for accepted and expected behaviors.

. the personality characteristics by which people define male and female.

33) One example of how gender roles vary with culture is that

. women are more likely to cook in China than in Sweden. . both men and women think life is better when both spouses work. . men are more aggressive in China than in Sweden.

. most North American doctors and dentists are men.

34) In the mid 1960s, married women in the United States devoted seven times as many hours to housework as did their husbands, yet in the mid 1990s, this figure was down to two times as many hours. This pattern reflects how gender roles

. are learned.
. are biologically determined.
. vary by culture.
. vary over time.

35) A very strong cultural norm dictates that males should be taller than their female mates. This height norm is cited in your text as evidence that

. relationship behavior is influenced more by biology than culture. . gender roles are essentially cultural and thus completely arbitrary. . what is biologically “fit” may be culturally disastrous. . biology and culture interact to develop gender-role norms.

36) If you clean your room only because your parents order you to, your behavior is a form of

. obedience.
. acceptance.
. conformity.
. compliance.

37) After hearing a great deal about the benefits of soy products from your friends, you decide to drink soy milk instead of cow’s milk. Your behavior is an example of

. obedience.
. acceptance.
. conformity.
. compliance.

38) After hearing so much about the dangers of smoking cigarettes from the media and seeing numbers of people who quit the habit, Jacob finally realizes that smoking is dangerous and therefore he quits. His behavior is an example of

. obedience.
. acceptance.
. conformity.
. compliance.

39) Which of the following is NOT a reason we yawn?

. calm
. tension release
. sleepy
. see others yawn

40) In the spring of 1954, Seattle residents were alarmed by widespread reports of damage by a mysterious windshield-pitting agent. According to the text, the true cause of public concern was most likely

. fallout from recent Pacific testing of the H-bomb. . mass suggestibility.
. psychological reactance.
. the autokinetic phenomenon.

41) How did Asch’s studies of conformity differ from those of Sherif?

. Asch’s participants faced a more ambiguous task. . Sherif’s participants were dealing with facts rather than opinions. . Asch’s participants could clearly see the correct judgment. . Sherif’s participants were in the physical presence of the pressuring group, while Asch’s participants were not.

42) While control participants were correct about line-length judgments more than 99 percent of the time in Asch’s conformity study, his naive participants conformed to the incorrect judgments of others ___ percent of the time.

. 12
. 37
. 65
. 87

43) Milgram’s studies explored _______; Asch’s studies explored _______.

. obedience; conformity
. conformity; norm formation
. obedience; norm formation
. conformity; obedience

44) According to the text, Asch’s experiments lacked _______ but did possess _______.

. experimental realism; mundane realism
. mundane realism; experimental realism
. validity; reliability
. reliability; validity

45) The most famous and controversial experiments in social psychology were conducted by

. Sherif.
. Milgram.
. Asch.
. Watson.

46) When participants in Milgram’s experiments wanted to quit, they were given

. shocks to keep them going.
. money as an incentive to keep going.
. up to four verbal prods to keep them going.
. a reward for being one of the few to disobey.

47) When Milgram asked 100 psychiatrists, college students, and middle-class adults to predict the results of his experiment, the respondents said that they thought _______ would _______.

. they themselves; never begin to administer the shocks . they themselves; disobey by about 135 volts
. other people; disobey by about 210 volts
. other people; would go all the way to 450 volts

48) In follow-up experiments to his initial study, Milgram made the learner’s protests more compelling by having him complain of a heart condition, then scream and plead for release, and finally refuse to answer. With this added condition,

. the majority of participants still fully obeyed the experimenter’s demands. . teachers were more reluctant to deliver initial shocks. . learners became more real and personal to the teacher. . fewer participants went to 450 volts.

49) A psychiatrist who interviewed 40 of Milgram’s participants a year after their participation concluded that

. none had been harmed.
. many were suspicious of all authorities.
. a minority of them had lowered self-esteem.
. most regretted having served in Milgram’s study.

50) In light of the Milgram studies, which of the following is NOT one of the factors that determined obedience?

. the victim’s similarity to the teacher
. the victim’s physical distance
. the authority’s closeness and legitimacy
. whether or not the authority was institutionalized

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