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Soft Skills' impact on life

By Karim-Siddiqui Oct 04, 2014 9586 Words
Table of Contents

Sr. No.
Description
Page Number
1
Preface
1
2
Acknowledgement
2
3
Youth Development to address poverty and issues of employment 3
4
The scope of soft skills

5
The employment trends and role of soft skills

6
Streams of Soft Skills

7
Model for implementing soft skills in Technical skills and education

8
Attitude, Behavior and Language

9
What is Pre-employment assessment test

9
The Concept of Emotional Intelligence, (EQ – Emotional Quotient 5
9
The learning styles

10
Model Training Package for soft skills

11

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the name of Allah [subhanhowatallah] the most gracious, the most merciful, I say! my prayer and my service of sacrifice, my life and my death, are [all] for Allah [subhanhowatallah] the cherisher of the worlds’ (Qur’an Alkarim 6:162) My first thanks and praise for Allah [subhanho watallah], the sustainer after universe and the most kind and merciful, without his blessings nothing would have been possible. I thank to him for the knowledge, strength and the patience that He provided me to complete this book, which is culmination of extensive study, research work and my life long experience in the field of human resource development through skill training consist of technical skill added with contents of this books of soft skills. I wish to express my deepest gratitude to my wife Fakhar Karim Siddiqui, who provided me, the environment with her valuable inspiration to complete this work. I also wish to express my grateful sentiments and appreciation to my children Asif, Maria, Dayyan, Vania and Rayyan who had been with their lovable words and feelings. The main cause behind this effort of writing book on topic of soft skills was the inspiring wish of my Late Mother whowanted mehelpful to others.She wanted to see me a person dedicated to the common cause of humanity. Perhaps publication of this book will please her soul. I dedicate this work to her. May Allah [subhanhowatallah] bless her soul in eternal peace.Amen

Youth Development to address poverty and issues of employment Poverty is the result of poor economy recession and natural disaster, the third world’s under developing countries are victim of any or all the symptoms of poverty, another dilemma is poor performance, corruption, unplanned and isolated efforts for eradication of the menace, aggravated the situation by converting the poverty into critical poverty whereas, properly planed efforts for youth developmentbased on best practiced model of the world, bringing good results of converting the poverty to progressive poverty, whichmove the wheel of fortune to boost the economy by facilitation the employment, entrepreneurship, business for better enterprising and self-employment. Pakistancensus170 Million of population and 796,096 square kilometers area, that consist of rivers valleys’ fertile soils, enriched natural resources mostly buried in mountain ranges, yet the most potentially important assets is its economy is human resource capital of youth estimated to be 60% its population. Unfortunately, the valuable asset of youth population is sitting idle that can achieve better economic growth for prosperity, if guided and trained in the skill trainings of the trades and vocations, needed in the country and that of the international market, the technical skills and soft skills surely eradicates the menace of unemployment, crime, poverty, the factors explained as under; (1) Meet their basic personal and social needs to be safe, feel cared of, be valued, be useful, and be acceptable citizen. (2) Build skills and competencies that allow them the earning through decent work to contribute in economy at the level of family, community, and nation. The symmetrically proper definitions of youth have been described in many different ways; sometimes as a particular age group, as a stage of life or as an attitude. One of the well-recognized definitions of youth is as follows: The youth period of human life is immense and tremendous. Youth is the best time of the life. The planed utilization of this period will make a career path that paves perfection with remarkable success. The poverty due to unemployment is a real impediment in youth’s life. The lack of resources on training and employment opportunities reinforce each other in a vicious cycle decreasing work and productivity, thereby perpetuating poverty and social inequalities across generations. Youth rely mainly on the use of their energy for smart work for earning their livelihood, whether through entrepreneurship, wage, or self-employment. Presently, due to lack of training resources and post training employment sources, the environment is not conducive to help focused youth development. The country is in need of skill force at all the levels of human capital needed to run the public sector services and at private sector streams, the much larger number of youth is required to be engaged in exploration of the natural resources, its utilization inland and overseas markets besides, industrial and commercial production, distribution and maintenance. The trained youth so diverted in above referred sectors can boost economy, bring prosperity, and handle to erode the menace of un-employment and poverty. By creating productive employment opportunities of smart work for the unemployed youth; the plenty of options are available within country, the profusions of natural resources, industrious cultural communities and indigenous craftsman society, no one may stay unemployed rather Pakistan might be able to employ Human Resource from other economical backward countries. The most important to achieve results is political will, which required to beassigned top priority to human resource capital sector, network of imparting skill trainings for all streams of employment, entrepreneurships with a mandatoryprovision of micro finance at soft and affordable rates. Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Youth Development Program [BBSYDP] offers short training for post training employment by imparting technical skills through well-designed curriculum and package on Soft Skills to equip trainees of the private sector training wing [PSTW] and public sector trainingsto enhance their competitive edges and acceptability in the job market and excel in life.

The scope of soft skills
This book is not specific for the program, but it has scope for all job seekers of any age, who have had acquired technical skills or who are in process of acquiring that skill in any streams of vocations/ trades for job market. The communities’ of the world recognized, the scope of soft skills as are a person's "EQ" (Emotional Intelligence Quotient), that is the collection of social fabric for refinements, communiqué, behaviors, sociability, and positivity to brand the interactions amongst the coworkers, family at work place and in their life. Soft skills are personal attributes that enhance an individual's interactions, job performance, and career prospects. Unlike hard skills, which are about a person's skill set and ability to perform a certain type of task or activity, soft skills relate to a person's ability to interact effectively with coworkers and customers and are broadly applicable both in and outside the workplace.

The universalslant towards the trends of local and international job market shows that; the need of employers for their industry and commercial enterprises’ is focused on vital role of soft skills.they assigned the priority to those training providing institutes who arefocused on post training employment. The recognition of Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Youth Development Program [BBSYDP] by international forums is based on the fact that programlooks beyond, developing trainees’ competency in their technical skills that is based on the trend of employment market, and the role of soft skills to enhance post-training employment.

The employment trends and role of soft skills

Mr. Millennial Brandingrecently conductedstudy on the employment trends shows; soft skills ranked high on the list of "must have” skills that employers rated most important, 98 percent of employers rated communication skills were essential and 92 percent were in favor of coordination skills, which both the skills are most important in the family of Soft Skills. The soft skills have been primarily discussed in the pretext of; who we are? Moreover, what we know? that also proliferate, the positive behavior, attitude, seriousness with the career and, the companionable interacts help promoting the team of dedicated work force. That break the menace of unemployment, If compared we know the hard skills or technical skills can be learned and perfected over time, and soft skills are simple to acquire and change entirely positive environment in life of human being who learned and practice them. Soft skills are essential skills for the excellence at the workplace, at home and society circles as well. The trainees with excel in soft skills can fit into most environments because they are flexible, committed, and persevering, and display their positive attitude, that are qualities cut across all disciplines. In order to perform well and advance in one's career, one needs to have high levels of soft skills in dealing with people. In short, technical skills need to be complemented with soft skills is a unique successful model in human life. The soft skills required for a computer operator, may use many styles of its learning for example that would be responsive, understandable, and polite listeners. Instead, the hard skills necessary for the same profession would include a sound up-dated set of skills of the computer and internet technology; here the impact of soft skills is more at the scale of success. The absence of soft skills may damage the entire concept of smart work, green jobs, and decent employment for an example we oftenwatch people at prominent positions picking nose or crunching on food and or, addressing the colleagues unethically besides, abysmal telephonic etiquette of communication. Such like scenesare due to lacking of the required soft skills, which is a common phenomenon one can observe around most of the work places in third world countries where they considered that soft skills are not important for their jobs and that never been imparted to trainees/ students in their training and or education systems. the need is to recognize what is lacking in oneself and then fill the gaps through workshops, seminars, or that of focused tailor-made training courses of soft skills to bridge those gaps.

The Soft Skills
&
Training Needs Assessment
Soft skills are acknowledged to be the most essential skills required in the global job market. The research has determined that specific soft skills with technical skills can be very useful for leading the job seekers to employment. The set of such soft skills are as follows. Communicative skills

Problem solving skills
Team work skills
Life-long learning and Information Management
Entrepreneur skills
Ethics, moral and professionalism
Leadership skills
Each of the above soft skills consists of group in the category of sub-skills. These sub-skills are divided into two categories of implementation. The first category outlines the soft skills that every individual must have [Need to know] and the second category represents soft skills that are good to have [Nice to know]. Despite, the emphasis being put on the soft skills that must be present (Need to know), it is also encouraged to inculcate the soft skills that are [Nice to know]. All elements of soft skills must be acquired by each individual learner and evaluated effectively and comprehensively.

Themust have, soft skills category essentially be acquired by each and every learner / individual in the institution or at work placewithout which, they are regarded as maladroit. The Nice to knowsoft skills can be regarded as the additional generic skills helping to work as catalyst to boost the chances of fitness in the job.  

It can be observed that required academic qualification with technical skills is essential tool for better human resource capital. We all realized that the current economic development trends are not sustainable and that demands excellency of behavior, attitudes of politeness and patients, in terms of proper soft skills besides the performance at their technical skills for productivity.

Public awareness on education,skill training with soft skills is the key elements to move our society towards sustainability.  The inculcation of soft skills among the learners will be benefitted to produce quality human capital and to develop their knowledge, skills for their prosperity and better economy of the country. The set of soft skills need to know and nice to know are elaborated as follows for creating better understandings.

1. Communication Skill
 The communication skills involve effective communication in the national language, selected provincial language, English and. languages of other Manpower importing countries like Arabic, Malawian. There are variety of sub-skills under communicative skills of which three are the must have [Need to know] skills and five are the good to have [Nice to know] skills. Communicative skills are an integral part of any system either in education and or skill trainings, emphasis has been given to develop the communicative skills of individual to enhance their acceptability at every stage of life. The communicative skill seemed to be one important component that lacks in the future human capital.  

2.         Problem Solving Skill

This skill includes the ability to think critically, creatively, innovatively and analytically. It also involves the ability to apply knowledge and understanding to new and different problems as well. The critical thinking skills are mainly to organize and interpret data and information, skills to formulate questions and the ability to analyze issue. The following are some examples of skills. The ability to think about systems (both natural and social sciences)

(i)    The ability to think in time-to forecast, to think ahead, and to plan. (ii)   The ability to think critically about value issues (iii)  The ability to separate number, quantity, quality, and values  

All the above skills are important and students will require them as adults.  
(iii)        Team Work skill
 
The ability to work with people from different social cultural background to achieve common goal studentsis encouraged to play their role in the group and to respect opinions and attitudes of others in the group. This skill is also part in the reorientation of basic education: the ability to work cooperatively with other people. If the future human capital can attain these skills, we can be rest assure that the future generation will collaborate ideas and cooperate a taskforce towards the well-being of the nation.  

(iv)      Learning and Management skill
 
This skill involves an effort to learn to be independent or self-regulated learning in acquiring skills and new knowledge. The ability to find and manage relevant information from various sources is also a criterion of this soft skill. Life-long learning will enable individuals to accumulate as much knowledge and skills over the years.  The ability to manage information well will allow an individual to distinguish between good and bad, to adopt the best practices and to make sound decisions.  

(v)        Entrepreneurship skill
 
The ability to seek business opportunity and develop risk awareness, it also involves being creative and innovative in activities related to business and tasks to design and plan business propositions and the ability to be self-employed.  This skill can be in some ways contribute to the society if the training and practice is done for a good purpose.  

(vi)       Ethics, Morale, and Professional skill
 
The ability to practice a high morale standard in professional tasks and social interaction this skill also includes the ability to analyze ethical problems and make problem-solving decisions. Having a sense of responsibility towards society is another criterion of this soft skill.  

(vii)      Leadership skill
The ability to lead in various activities and tasks, this is an important criterion in set of soft skills for planning and implementing ideas in a group. This skill is also important to lead in discussion and make decision.

Model for implementing soft skills in Technical skills and education  
A universal approach to implement the soft skills among the trainees of technical skills and education, the approach is based on the combination of several programs and main activities; formal teaching and learning activities; academic and non-academic programs focused and the students campus life and the campus surroundings, the framework for implementing soft skills among students of technical education and educational institutions in general, the development of soft skills among the students via the formal teaching and learning activities takes two models; (i) stand alone and

(ii) embedded
(iii) Combination of Stand Alone Subject Model and Embedded Mode  
 (i)         Stand Alone Subject Model
 
This model uses the approach of training and providing opportunities to students to develop soft skills through specific courses that are carefully planned for this purpose. Usually, these subjects are offered as university courses (such as English language, entrepreneurship, etc) and elective courses (such as public speaking, critical thinking, etc). The courses in this category are often a part of the overall requirements that make up the program. The number of courses and credits in this category depends on the curriculum design and the requirements of the program. The stand-alone subject model can also be initiated by encouraging students to sign-up several additional courses, which can be accumulated to be a minor course which is different from the initial program signed-up. For example, a student who is pursuing an engineering program is encouraged to take minor courses in management or mass communication. However, such an approach will require an increase in the number of credits and time spent for the particular program.  

(ii)        Embedded Model
 
This model uses the approach of embedding the soft skills in the teaching and learning activities across the curriculum. It does not require the student to take special courses as in the stand-alone subject model. Instead, the students are trained to master the soft skills through various formal teaching and learning activities that are planned and carried out using specific strategies and methods. In this way, the content and learning outcomes to be achieved for the respective courses are maintained. The learning outcomes related to the soft skills will be integrated and be part of the learning outcomes of the respective courses. This is the suggested model to be implemented in all the courses for the different programs in institutions of higher learning. Each element of soft skills is spelled out in the learning outcomes and then translated into the instructional plan for the semester. This is followed by implementing several teaching and learning activities such as questioning, class discussion, brain storming, team work, presentation, role play and simulation, task/project, field work and site visits. In general, the development of soft skills using the embedded model requires the expertise of the lecturers to use the various teaching strategies and methods that are entirely student-centered. It also involves active teaching and learning and students should participate actively in the activities. Some of the appropriate strategies and methods that are practical include: learning by questioning

cooperative learning
problem-based learning (PBL)
e-learning
 
(iii) Combination of Stand Alone Subject Model and Embedded Model  
Each of the respective models described above has its weaknesses and strengths. From the framework, planning, implementing, and assessment, the stand-alone model is definitely at an advantage. This is because the course or subject is specially developed to assist students to acquire the soft skills. However, this model lacked the opportunity for students to develop and acquire soft skills as integrated with other knowledge and skills in the major discipline studied.

On the contrary, the framework, planning, implementing, and assessment of the embedded model are more challenging than the stand-alone model. This model requires the lecturers to master specific teaching and learning skills and then apply these skills in teaching the respective core courses for the specific program. However, when carefully planned and used the appropriate teaching and learning strategies, this model is more effective in developing and acquiring the soft skills as integration with the other knowledge and skills in the program. In addition, this model does not require any additional courses to the already existing courses of the respective program.

Based on the weaknesses and strengths discussed, the higher education institutes are encouraged to use the embedded model as compared to the stand alone model. This is because the embedded model focus on student centered learning such experiential learning, problem-based learning and gives students the practical experience as well.  

Development of soft skills through support programs
 
This involves programs and activities that are created, developed, and used to support soft skills either directly or indirectly. In general, the program and activity can be divided into two: (i) academic support program and

(ii) non-academic support program

The academic support program is to help students acquire the soft skills that are associated with academic matters. Some of these programs include Learning Skills and English Language.

As for the non-academic support program, it assists students to acquire the soft skills that are not related to academic matters but more of personality and professional development of the students. Most of the programs and activities may be designed in the form of co-curriculum and extra co-curriculum.  

The development of soft skills through Campus Life Activities  
Most of the university students spend half of their students’ life living in residences in the university campus. As such, institutions of higher learning should use this excellent opportunity to develop their soft skills. This can be done through carefully crafted programs and carrying them out in the conducive campus grounds through any of forms suits there but it should be focused on self-learning, role playing model: the streams and styles elaborated in this book may be helpful for that purpose.

 
Conclusion
 
To live to the challenge of globalization, which is in line with the era of information economy, the strength of a nation is strongly dependent on the ability of its citizen to be highly intellectual and skillful. The development of human capital is thus important and necessary since it drives the nation to the envision vision and mission. Without a quality human capital, a nation will be weak as there is no human factor that is capable to embark on new initiatives and perspectives. A quality human capital comes from a quality education process. A carefully designed and well-planned education and skill development policy guided to system is critical to developing such human capital. Thus, institution of higher learning plays a very important role to produce a human capital that is highly knowledgeable and skillful to meet the demand and expectations of many people. The teaching and learning processes in institutions of higher learning should be capable to provide such knowledge and skills to future graduates.

What Is a Pre-Employment Assessment?

Potential employers assess a job seeker's disposition or professional skills through pre-employment assessment. The assessment/ tests provide the data for suitability of applicant; they are used as a preliminary step for determining whether job candidates will fit well with the culture of an organization. Some employers use pre-employment assessment tests to rule out interview candidates while others use it for the purpose of gathering general information about job candidates.

1. Types
Pre-employment assessment tests can be used to evaluate a candidate's personality, skill sets, aptitude, and character. Some companies administer pre-employment drug screenings as a part of their pre-employment assessment. Drug screenings have become common practice by major companies due to the growth in drug use among U.S. workers, according to Best Job Interview. Aside from drug screenings, which require a physical or laboratory examination, pre-employment assessment tests are often timed, multiple-choice tests that are administered online. Purpose

Employers rely on pre-employment assessments using a rating system to select candidates who meet a specific job profile. Usually, there are no right or wrong responses to pre-employment assessment tests. Job applicants are expected to respond to each question truthfully. Pre-employment testing applies to job applicants seeking entry-level to mid- and upper-level management positions. Some companies expect applicants for senior executive positions to take pre-employment assessments. Commonly used personality assessment tests help employers determine a candidate according to characteristics like extroversion, emotional stability and willingness to try new things. Employers seeking applicants for specific jobs like sales and professional management, entry-level jobs and executive careers can use a variety of testing strategies that are designed to evaluate job-specific skills and qualifications. Entry-level assessments include questions that address job-related concerns such as integrity, reliability, workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Job candidates for management and sales positions can be evaluated according to essential professional criteria such as coping skills, attention to detail, collaborative skills and personal drive. Considerations

Job candidates who take a pre-employment online assessment test can obtain their passing score immediately after taking the test. Receiving a passing score is a positive sign. Although it does not guarantee that an applicant will be offered the job, it indicates that a candidate may be moved to the next stage of the hiring process. Employers find it useful to use pre-employment screenings because it helps them eliminate applicants who are unsuited for specific job profiles.

The Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Recent brain/mind research and new theories of human intelligence redirect our attention in three specific areas. The surroundings and guidance
The support and relationships we develop between parents, educators, and children The need to match what we know about the ways kids are intelligent and learn with teaching strategies designed to maximize the full development of each individual child. A Useful Model

Gardner's Multiple Intelligences theory is a very useful model for developing a systematic approach to nurturing and teaching soft skills for positive change in attitude and behaviour of learner. The theory of Multiple Intelligences includes; the notion that each person is smart in all seven types of intelligence. Every person is smart to varying degrees of expertise in each of the intelligences, stronger in some ways and less developed in others. Heredity and genetics influence the way the brain is neurologically "wired" before birth and are contributing factors that determine the strongest and/or most favoured types of intelligence. This is seen in children with very strong and evidenttalents,based on thattheymemorise 6666 ayahs of Quran Alkarim at very young ages.

Features of Multiple Intelligences
Multiple Intelligences have features to identify personal characteristics, traits, behaviours, and preferences.We classify and discuss here seven intelligences. Remember, we are all intelligent to varying degrees in all seven ways. Each person has a unique profile. You may be very strong in one or two intelligences, medium in a few, and perhaps weak or empty (not yet filled) in one or two. Consequently, you may have four or five intelligences that are equally developed and two that are less developed. The important thing is to identify and build on one's strengths to modify and increase the less developed intelligences in ourselves and in children. 1) Linguistic Intelligence: People with high verbal/linguistic intelligence love words. They prefer to process information through words and language versus pictures. They may prefer oral or written methods, or excel in both. Additional characteristics include the following: Sensitive to the meaning, order, and sound of words

Uses varied language
Avid talkers; good speakers
Likes to explain, convince, and persuade through words
Enjoys and excels at word games
Enjoys listening to, telling, and reading stories
Enjoys rhymes and poetry
Has good memory recall for names and dates
2) Logical Intelligence:People with high logical intelligence create order out of pandemonium by analysing, grouping, and categorizing. They recognize relationships, connections, and patterns more easily than people do with less logical intelligence. Additional characteristics include the following: Ability to handle long chains of reasoning

Likes reasons for doing things
Possesses good inductive and deductive reasoning
Quick to learn equivalencies
Asks "why" and "how" questions
Solves problems rapidly
Likes to predict, analyse, and theorize
Enjoys dealing with abstraction
Strong at math and problem solving skills
Sequential thinker
Enjoys board games and games with rules

3) Musical Intelligence: People with high musical intelligence learn best through sound, rhythm, and music. These people learn better when music is playing and through musical metaphors. Additional characteristics include the following: Ability to perceive pitch, tone, and rhythmic pattern

Well-developed auditory sense and discrimination
Ability to create, organize rhythmically, and compose music
Picks up and creates melodies/rhythm easily
Remembers songs easily
Ability to sing or play instruments
Sensitive and drawn to sounds
Possesses "schemas" for hearing music
Constantly humming, tapping, and singing

4) Spatial Intelligence:People with high visual intelligence process information best using pictures, visuals, and imagery. They have a sense of direction and an ability to think and plan in three dimensions. Additional characteristics include the following: Ability to create complex mental images

Active imagination
Ability to find their way mentally and physically around environment Ability to see the physical world accurately and translate it into new forms Ability to see things in relationship to others
Ability to use "mind maps"
Uses imagery and guided visualizations
Likes visual support-video, pictures, photos, charts, posters Organizes space, objects, and areas
Enjoys designing and decorating

5) Kinaesthetic intelligence: People with high kinaesthetic intelligence process information through their bodies-through muscle, sensation, and movement. Their bodies are their avenue to learning and understanding any content or subject and are their preferred form of self-expression. Additional characteristics include the following: A fine-tuned ability to use the body and handle objects

Ability to express emotions through bodily movement
Enjoys physical movement and dance
Uses body to accomplish a task
Experiences a strong mind/body connection
Expands awareness through the body
Experiences a total physical response
Often good at creative drama
6) Interpersonal Intelligence: People with high interpersonal intelligence process information through relatedness to others. It is in relationship to and with other people that they best understand themselves and the others in contact. Additional characteristics include the following:

Ability to notice and distinguishdelicacies among others, such as moods, temperaments, and feelings Differentiates underlying intentions, behaviour, and perspectives Easily makes friends and enjoys the company of others

Ability to get into the perspective of another
Responds to verbal and nonverbal communications-facial cues and body movements Recognizes and empathizes with others' feelings
Ability to negotiate and handle conflict resolution
Works cooperatively in a group
Works well with a diverse group of people
Good communication skills
Loves to talk and influence

7) Intrapersonal Intelligence: People with high intrapersonal intelligence have a strong sense of themselves, their wants, and needs. They are self-reflective and in touch with themselves. They may be the freethinkingindividuals who, work in their ownstyle. Additional characteristics include the following: Well-developed sense of self

Awareness and expression of different feelings
Self-reflection and mindfulness
Ability to think about thinking (i.e., metacognition)
Transpersonal sense of self-Asks big questions—"Why are we here?" and "What happens when we die?" Often is a daydreamer
Often writes introspectively including prose, poetry, or journal writing Excellent self-planners and good at goal setting
Enjoys solitude and likes to think alone
Good understanding of strengths and weaknesses
Enjoys self-discovery
Teaching Tools and Strategies
Reflect on and identify your own strengths and intelligences which are less developed. Identify the strengths and "empties" of the children, too. You may begin to notice patterns and correlations between the strengths you enjoy or are less comfortable with in the children and your own strengths and empties. Are the children's strengths the same as yours or are they most intelligent in a way you are least intelligent? We naturally rely on and use teaching strategies that match our strongest intelligences. Our strengths, therefore, create unconscious teaching biases. When we identify our own less developed intelligences, we may notice that we are untrained in or have avoided using the teaching strategies best designed for developing that intelligence in children. Therefore, it becomes our responsibility first to identify our own strengths and weaknesses and then to stretch and continue our lifelong learning process by developing our own intelligences. Only then can we incorporate teaching strategies, which support all seven intelligences and meet the needs of all children. Environmental Strategies Multiple Intelligences

Because circle time and whole group instruction activities dictate that we do the same thing with all or most of the children at the same time, these activities are among the least effective strategies for meeting the diverse needs and intelligences of young children. Group activities often favour a teacher's strengths while meeting the strengths of only a few of the children. The most significant modification we can make to meet diverse needs is to reduce the use of circle time and replace it by incorporating and using well-planned learning stations or centres where children can spend most of their day. Learning stations are temporary activity locations where materials, which put out and later, put away, usually by an adult. Learning centres are permanent locations, visually and spatially defined areas, ideally three-sided, where materials are organized by subject and available for children to select independently Active Learning Centres for Multiple Intelligences

The following suggested learning centres foster the development of each intelligence and allow children opportunities to build on and expand their strengths.  
Verbal/Linguistic
Library or book-nook
Story time
Writing centre
Listening centre
Flannel board station
Publishing centre
 
Logical/Mathematical
Math centre
Science centre
Take-apart centre
Puzzle centre
Recycling centre
Weather station
Computer centre (e.g., logical thinking, sequential software) Cooking centre
 
Musical
Music studio
Instrument show
Singing circle
Listening centre
Background music
Nature sounds
 
Visual/Spatial
Art centre (e.g., sculpting dough, collage, painting, drawing) Manipulates (e.g., 3-D manipulative, visual puzzles)
Block centre, Media centre (e.g., videos, slides, photos, charts) Computer centre (e.g., visual design and layout software)
 
Kinaesthetic
Gross motor centre (e.g., open space for creative movement, climbing structure, mini-trampoline) Dance circle Woodworking centre
Manipulative centre
Take-apart centre
Imaginative-play centre
Playground/outdoor play
Tactile-learning centre (e.g., sandpaper letters, sample textures and cloth)  
Interpersonal
Puppet theatre
Dramatic play centre
Sharing/social area
Group discussion area
Small group area
Cooking centre
 
Intrapersonal
Attics [Top Floor]
One-person centres& stations
Life skills/self-help centre
Computer centre (e.g., self-paced software)
Conclusion
Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences moralities and promotes the development of the boulevards of intelligence in all the ages. This approach provides a way to ascertain how to learning could be inculcated in people of any age, the steps are as follows: 1) to build on their strongest assets

2) to help them become more intelligent by exposing them to a variety of ways of learning 3) to better individualize for their interests and needs
4) to use teaching strategies that make learning more efficient, successful, and enjoyable for all children. We can foster meaningful learning experiences by using multiple teaching tools and strategies and by building positive, supportive relationships with people. Through environments that offer a variety of stimulating, hands-on materials that children individually select and by creating learning centres that provide natural opportunities to move, be active, and fully engaged in either solo or small group experiences, we better serve and meet the needs of more children.

The Concept of Emotional Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence is contemporarysocial model, which createsvision of two minds theory a) rationale b) emotional and their part in our destiny. Theprimary emotional intelligence theory was disseminated in early eighties’ over the writings of manypsychologists. That is now a day isincreasingly significant for each individual working with any enterprise, office, institution, and organization. the principles are providing a new way to understand and assess people's behaviors, management styles, attitudes, interpersonal skills, the potential of emotional intelligence is important consideration in human resources planning, job profiling, recruitment interviewing and selection, management development, customer relations and customer service, and more. A person's soft skills connected to EQ Emotional Intelligence Quotient) are an important part of their individual contribution to the success at the work place. Soft skills are behavioral competencies, also known as interpersonalskills; they include proficiencies such as communication skills for strategic thinking, team building, and influencing, problem solving. The important streams of soft skills are described for better understanding as follows:

Communication Skills–
The ability to communicate is the primary factor that distinguishes human beings from animals. It is the ability to communicate well that distinguishes one individual from another. The fact is that apart from the basic necessities, one needs to be equipped with set of good communication skills, as this is what will make them a happy and successful social being. We believe that a speech that is read, for example, rarely has the same impact as a speech that has delivered (or appears to be delivered) spontaneously, of course, it takes time and effort to develop these skills and become an effective communicator. In order to develop these habits, one needs to acknowledge the fact that they need to improve communication skills from time to time. The only constant in life is change, and the more one accepts one’s strengths and works towards dealing with their shortcomings, especially in the area of communication skills, the better will be their interactions and the more their social popularity. The trained person excel with correct set of communication skills, transformed into an interactive, polite and clear communicator, who is considered expert of vocal and body Language, weneed to know the accurate way to approach and interact with contemporaries. The World is a global village we haverecognized role of information technology and cellular gadgets making our routine work easy, we see the camel/ donkey cart person or vegetable vendor and ChiefExecutive Officer communicates withshort message service [sms], right from simplecalculation to complex invoices and at office level role of emails in their everyday routine business and the ability to manage stress and, the capacity to recognize and understanding of emotions thus everyone in this mechanized world is in need of such skills. Now we think about. How to improve communication skills? That is a question mark to address the gap of proper behavioral at individual basis; one can find plenty of role models who may also be replicated to achieve the desired results by proper adaptation of the behavioral changes. Today, the effective communication skills have become a predominant factor, the employment agencies while recruiting interviewing candidates, most interviewers’ judge them based on the way they communicate. They believe that skills can be improvised on the job; but ability to communicate well is important, as every employee becomes the representing face of the company, there are trainers, who specialize in delivering customized training workshops, seminars or training packages like this one. Here we may take up the example of time management, as we know the mismanagement of time beside the failure of desired results, that may also become a cause for stress and frustration, which then obstructs the possibility of healthy communications at work. Thus, a workshop on communication skills helps the management to deal with the finer employee nuances about which they lack awareness.

Attitude, Behavior and Language

Language employs symbols, words, gestures, or spoken sounds to represent objects and ideas. Communication of language begins with spoken sounds combined with gestures, relying on two different types of skills. We base the attitudes, behaviors and languages of entire globe for all human races, societies and nations, the growth of humanity right from birth divulge that children first learn to receive communications by listening to and understanding what they hear (supported by accompanying gestures); next, they experiment with expressing themselves through speaking and gesturing. Speech begins as repetitive syllables, followed by words, phrases, and sentences. The attitude for learning begins here,thus, we say the attitude combined with behavior is helpful to an infant in the learning of language that is none but a soft skill built in there by birth. Infancy

Touch can be a positive, encouraging communication technique from birth through childhood. In infancy messages of love, security, and comfort are transferred through holding, cuddling, gentle stroking, and patting. Infants cannot understand the meaning of words they hear, but they can feel, interpret, and respond to gentle, loving supportive hands caring for them. The development of language in infants follows this progression: crying, babbling, cooing, single words (mama and pappa), and simple names of some objects. Toddlerhood

Toddlers one and two years of age experience the world through the physical senses. Language development for toddlers includes: using two-word combinations, taking turns speaking and listening, using the word no frequently, and using gestures to communicaterequirements and wishes. Learning Age [Schooling]

Learning age know as school age, children 6 years to 9 years of age learn to communicate their own thoughts, as well as understand viewpoints of others. They can understand words with multiple meanings can easily translate the signs combined in attitudes and behaviors. The age of 10 to 13 year is known as adolescence. The adolescents are able to comprehend theories and explain them. Theyare able to talk about and understand most of current ideas, showing empathy by identifying with the others’ feelingslistening with an open mind in order to understand another person's point of view. Children's receptive communication skills are more advanced than their verbal communication skills. They understand more than people often expect of them, based on their verbal skills. Visual Communication

People communicate with eyes as well. Communication occurs with cues of body language and facial expression. Eye contact is a communication connector. Making eye contact helps confirm attention and interest between the individuals communicating. Some people are visual learners. They learn best when they can see or read instructions, demonstrations, diagrams, or information, using various methods of presenting and shaping. Information increases understanding. Photographs, videotapes, dolls, computer programs, charts, and graphs can as effectively communicate information as written or spoken words can Verbal communication extends beyond written text. Audible sounds add to meaning. In addition, tone or attitude communicates sometimes a different meaning than the words used. Effective communicators do not send mixed messages. They say what they mean without sarcasm or equivocation. Body Language

Open body stance and positioning invite communication and interaction, whereas a closed body stance and positioning impedes communication. Using an open body posture improves communication with children. Both parents and children learn to read each other's body language. Timing

Recognizing the right time to communicate is a skill. A disinterested child whose parents have left for work is not ready to hear a story. The time will be more productive and the information better received if the child has a chance to make an emotional transition. Common Problems

Parents should strive to make words and intended meanings match when communication with their children. Children who are given mixed messages are confused and uncertain. Sometimes parents inadvertently attempt to control their children with double or mixed messages; doing so is unhealthy for their relationship to one another. There are various kinds of spoken language problems, delays, and disabilities. In general, experts distinguish between those children who are slow in developing spoken language (language delay) and those who have difficulty achieving a milestone of spoken language (language disorders). Language disorders include stuttering; articulation disorders, such as substituting one sound for another (tandy for candy); omitting a sound [canny for candy or angy for angry]; or distorting a sound (shlip for slip). Voice disorders include inappropriate pitch, volume, or quality. The causes for language problems have been linked to hearing, nerve, and muscle disorders; head injury; viral diseases; mental retardation; drug abuse; and cleft lips or palate. Parental Concerns

In the past, most parents, pediatricians, and educators recommended giving a child time to outgrow a difficulty with spoken language. Theresearch had shown that early speech and language disorders could lead to later difficulties in learning to read, write, and spell. Thus, many professionals recommended evaluation by a speech-language pathologist for toddlers who displayed language delay.

The learning styles
The plausible researches recognized that people have various learning styles. We mentioned here the most common styles for practice to understand them in the prospective of Soft Skills.  
Spatial: the visual style of learning is verycommon byusing pictures, images, and other visual sources for understanding. If you are a visual learner, use images, pictures, colour and other visual media to help you learn. Integrate imagery into your visualizations with vibrant colours. You may find that visualization comes easily to you. This also means that you may have to make your visualizations vividly panorama. Use colour, layout, lovely and use many 'visual words' in your captions. Use mind to plan thecolour and pictures in place of text, wherever possible. If you don't use the computer, make sure you have at least four different colour pens. Use systems diagrams can to visualize the links between parts. Replace words with pictures, and use colours to highlight major and minor links. The visual journey or story technique helps you memorize content that isn't easy to 'see.' The visual story approach for memorizing procedures is a good example of this. Peg words and events come easily to you;however you need to spend some time learning at least the first ten peg words. Afterwards, your ability to visualize helps you peg content quickly. The swish technique for changing behaviours also works well for you, as it relies on visualization.

Acoustic: The use of sound, music and other auditory source is a practical style of learning. This is like acoustic guitar learning. The science of sound is an acoustic learning, that help a lot in the process of the learning at all stages, styles, the learning of music itself to music basic learning. It has its own world of learning.

Linguistic: the style of learning is called word smart that is an intelligence, which involves Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence known as the knowledge of language; through reading, writing, and speaking,the meaning of words in both speech and writing and how to properly use the language.

It also involves understanding of the socio-cultural nuances of a language, including idioms, plays on words, and linguistic comicalness. We put our Linguistic skills to work whenever; we speak, read, write, or listen. In the classroom, at home or any such place we gathered, all the listeners must draw on their linguistic talents all the time. For those who are not strong in this area,can be a struggle. The use of words, both in speech and writing at verbal or writing sources all the educational activity of learning is based on this style.

A Linguistic learner would respond well with several different mediums, they include: Verbal presentation
Large-small group discussion
Books
Worksheets
Writing Activities
Word games
Research
Student reports
Storytelling
Publishing newsletters
Using Computers
Journal writing
Choral Reading
Debates

Kinesthetic:The use body, hands and sense of touch is a practical style of learning often used in absence of vocal means. Learn by observation
Can recall what they have seen
Can follow written or drawn instructions
Like to read
Use written notes
Benefit by visualizing, watching TV/video/films

Learn Best through the Use of material listed as under;
Charts, graphs, diagrams, and flow charts
Sight words
Flashcards
Visual similarities and differences
Pictures and graphics
Maps
Silent reading
Written instructions
Computer assisted learning

Commonsensical: The use of logic, reasoning,methods and mathematical symbols provide practical framework of learning

Interpersonal: The use of group discussions, role-playing, task teamwork and all that create the environment of learning in groups that also includes a classroom type learning style.

intrapersonal: The style of learning alone at one’s own pace of progress and use self-learning like fault and fix method.

English and Business Communication: It is pertinent that English has become a requirement for anyone who wishes to excel - after all, it is an international language and knowing it can only be convenient to manage the business and Time Management: All of us work hard, but all of us also hope that there were more than 24 hours with which the day had been made. Amazingly, there are people who are able to do all and more within these very 24 hours. Therefore, learning time-management is essential Anger Management: Shouting at every crossroad has almost become the order of the day. How many of us are able to contain our anger, and channelize it fruitfully? If the art of managing anger were more common, there would be less hypertension and other related problems. Telephonic Etiquette:'Bolo' the most common and trite word heard on the phone! Telephone has become one of the most abused machines, what with the onslaught of limited telephone etiquette and poor communication.

Team Building and Leadership:Everyone has to work with the other in co-ordination and coherence. To learn this, and understand the benefits of team and team spirit learning, the essentials of team building are necessary.

Social and Business Etiquette:Meeting people, greeting them, being polite, bidding them goodbye are all a part of an individual's personality, so very crucial that they become instrumental in success or failure. Table Manners - The key objective in learning table manners (etiquette) is to feel comfortable when dining with others and the host. Ensure you are knowing the required etiquette. We have to learnt the manners like a children, many people feel out of place when dining simply because they do not know how to follow table manners, especially if they have been invited to a nice place. Admittedly, it is difficult to learn every point of etiquette at a glance, but here are a few general pointers. Remember, good manners never go out of style. The manners may be read as to wait for host to invite you to the table assigns you to a seat. Stand behind the chair as the other guests are assembled. When the host sits, take your seat. You will get extra points for helping others, such as the elderly, into their seats before you take yours. After you sit, pull your chair in to the table, without dragging it over the floor with a horrible scrape. Take your napkin from the table immediately, and place it neatly on your lap. Then sit up straight, just as Mom always tells you, put your napkin in your lap when you see them doing it. Match their rate of eating. (After all, no one wants to have an empty plate when his or her host is only halfway done with the dish.) If you see them eating finger food with a fork, follow their lead - even if it seems unreasonable. Assume that your host is always right; unless you can definitely tell that they have bad manners, in which case you may follow another guest. Use the appropriate cutlery. If there are many utensils in your place setting and there is more than one course, start on the outside and work your way in. Again, observe your host if you have any doubts. Be polite: Consider every action before you do it and if you have the slightest doubt, do not do it! You must consciously refrain from embarrassing yourself and your host. Take small bites; do not chew with your mouth open; do not talk with food in your mouth; and do not place elbows on the table. How to pass items: When someone says, "Please pass the (what you would like passed to you)," reach for it only if you are the closest one to it. Take the item and place it next to your neighbor. Continue passing the item in this manner until it reaches the person who asked for it. Refrain from helping yourself along the way, before the person who asked for it gets the chance. Wait politely until they have served themselves. Then ask for the bowl to be passed back to you. Presentation Skills -Making presentations, using audio-visual aids, and facing the audience with confidence and aplomb are a part of presentation skills. Do not hesitate and be embarrassed about learning something new that might facilitate you further your career. There are professionals who will give you the correct training and will help you overcome your lack of confidence, stage fear, and shyness, thereby enabling you to build a strong personality. These professionals are experienced trainers with corporate experience behind them, and you can find many such workshops being held in the city. So do not dawdle and take that first step! Custom courses are in high demand, with organizations around the world recognizing the benefits of having training and development courses customized to meet their needs and to support human resource development objectives. Applications of soft skills are often dealt with in universities, to produce graduates with grasp of knowledge to step into the working environment. However, it is applicable to teach Soft Skills at the schools as part of curriculum, vocational and skill training institution are the most appropriate places for teaching the soft skills the inculcation of soft skill as mandatory part of skill training shall be most vital source of the employability of graduates. These skills are important to enable the trainees to become trained workforce of any vocation that can contribute to productivity and will provide a positive impact on the organization, especially in terms of productivity and the services offered to customers. However, there is no specific list of soft skills, but mostly related to the soft skills such as teamwork, leadership, communication and continuous learning, the main focus is on construction of self-esteem, the development of entrepreneurial competencies, and competency development of vocational skills suited for the application of Soft Skills that emphasize moral values in life. Soft skills are personal attributes that enhance an individual's interactions, job performance, and career prospects. The technical skills, which are about a person's skill set and ability to perform a specific type of task or activity, soft skills are interpersonal and broadly, applicable, which are often described by using terms often associated with personality traits, such as: •positivity [Optimisms]

common sense
responsibility
honesty and truthfulness

besides, there are abilities that can be practiced also which are such as: •responsiveness
teamwork
guidance
communication with clarity
politeness
cooperation
affability
It has very truly said, “hard skills known as technical skills will get you an interview but you need soft skills to get you and keep you in the job making Sure Your Hard Skills shine for placement as a smart worker and valuable asset at work place. In fact, whenever you are unable to get the most out of on the wealth of knowledge, experience, and proficiency within your team, then you should be assessing the level of communication, teamworkgaps, and interpersonal skills that are present in your organization. The workplace has evolved an interpersonal dynamic that cannot be ignored. The acts of listening, presenting ideas, resolving conflict, and fostering an open and honest work environment all come down to knowing how to build and maintain relationships with people. It's those relationships that allow people to participate fully in team projects, show appreciation for others, and enlist support for their projects. It is important for you to recognize the vital role soft skills play within your team and not only work on developing them within yourself, but encourage their development throughout the organization, thus the areas to examine and evaluate include: Personal accountability

The degree of collaboration
Interpersonal negotiation skills
Conflict resolution
People's adaptability and flexibility
The clarity of communications
Creative thinking
Inclusion
Coaching and mentoring.
The more of these things you see around you, the better people's soft skills are likely to be within your organization. These all have a significant impact on the attitude a person brings to interactions with clients, customers, colleagues, supervisors, and other stakeholders. The more positive someone's attitude is the better that person's relationships will be. That is what fosters great team performance, and leads people to contribute strongly to the organization's vision and strategy.

Bridging knowledge gaps on soft skills
Globalization has intensified international competition between economies, world communities companies, in products and services, their design. As a consequence, it has placed a premium on developing a high-quality trained work force. Demand has increased most for professionals, technicians, managerial staff, and skilled and educated production workers and office staff able to perform tasks to standards, continuously innovate and improve processes Practically, all countries face major challenges in reorganizing their education and training systems to meet changes in the demand for skills and to improve the learning environment at work and in education establishments.

Model for Making a Training Package for soft skills

The Training Package [TP] for soft skills may be consist of following sequence of learning Material;

1. Instructor Guide: The Guide should contains all the tips, activities, delivery sequence, of exercise and or information selected in TP.

2. Student/ Trainees Manual: Contains sequence of information for each exercise as well as areas the accomplishment. Each manual also includes an evaluation form, action plan, and recommended reading list.

3. Handouts: Contains pre- and post-class answer keys as well as any additional information or activity resources.

4. Pre-Assignment: that may elaborated the task for participants to complete before the each exercise to get them thinking about the learning that will take place.

5. PowerPoint Slides: PowerPoint presentation highlighting talking points in the course.

6. Multimedia projector: the multimedia projector has always its tangible roll in the leaning process, it has a unique quality of visual based learning, playing videos on screen engage the attention of trainees.

7. Quick Reference Guide: the sheet of tips and facts covered in the course.

8. Outline: Text document outlines the overview and objectives of the course and summarizes each session to be covered.

9. Final Assessment: The assessment must always consist of testing of trainees, in order to scale the learning that may be assessed by its critical and non-critical areas.

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