sodium

Topics: Sodium, Young's modulus, Potassium Pages: 6 (486 words) Published: November 6, 2013
Sodium
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the chemical element. For the PlayStation Home game, see Sodium (PlayStation Home). For the racehorse, seeSodium (horse). "Natrium" redirects here. For the town in West Virginia, see Natrium, West Virginia. Sodium

11Na

Li

Na

K
neon ← sodium → magnesium

Sodium in the periodic table
Appearance
silvery white metallic

Spectral lines of sodium
General properties
Name, symbol,number
sodium, Na, 11
Pronunciation
/ˈsoʊdiəm/ soh-dee-əm
Element category
alkali metal
Group, period,block
1 (alkali metals), 3, s
Standard atomic weight
22.98976928(2)
Electron configuration
[Ne] 3s1
2,8,1

History
Discovery
Humphry Davy (1807)
First isolation
Humphry Davy (1807)
Physical properties
Phase
solid
Density (near r.t.)
0.968 g·cm−3
Liquid density atm.p.
0.927 g·cm−3
Melting point
370.944 K, 97.794 °C, 208.029 °F
Boiling point
1156.090 K, 882.940 °C, 1621.292 °F
Critical point
(extrapolated)
2573 K, 35 MPa
Heat of fusion
2.60 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization
97.42 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity
28.230 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa)
1
10
100
1 k
10 k
100 k
at T (K)
554
617
697
802
946
1153

Atomic properties
Oxidation states
1, −1
(strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity
0.93 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 495.8 kJ·mol−1

2nd: 4562 kJ·mol−1

3rd: 6910.3 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius
186 pm
Covalent radius
166±9 pm
Van der Waals radius
227 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure
body-centered cubic

Magnetic ordering
paramagnetic[1]
Electrical resistivity
(20 °C) 47.7 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity
142 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion
(25 °C) 71 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound(thin rod)
(20 °C) 3200 m·s−1
Young's modulus
10 GPa
Shear modulus
3.3 GPa
Bulk modulus
6.3 GPa
Mohs hardness
0.5
Brinell hardness
0.69 MPa
CAS registry number
7440-23-5
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of sodium
iso
NA
half-life
DM
DE (MeV)
DP
22Na
trace
2.602y
β+→γ
0.5454
22Ne*

1.27453(2)[2]
22Ne

ε→γ
-
22Ne*

1.27453(2)
22Ne

β+
1.8200
22Ne
23Na
100%
23Na is stable with 12 neutrons
* = excited state

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Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na (from Latin: natrium) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silver-white, highly reactive metal and is a member of the alkali metals; its only stable isotope is 23Na. The free metal does not occur in nature, but instead must be prepared from its compounds; it was first isolated by Humphry Davy in 1807 by the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide. Sodium is the sixth most abundantelement in the Earth's crust, and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars, sodaliteand rock salt. Many salts of sodium are highly water-soluble, and their sodium has been leached by the action of water so that chloride and sodium (NaCl) are the most common dissolved elements by weight in the Earth's bodies of oceanic water. Many sodium compounds are useful, such as sodium hydroxide (lye) for soap-making, and sodium chloride for use as a deicing agent and a nutrient (edible salt). Sodium is anessential element for all animals and some plants. In animals, sodium ions are used against potassium ions to build up charges on cell membranes, allowing transmission of nerve impulses when the charge is dissipated. The consequent need of animals for sodium causes it to be classified as a dietary inorganic macro-mineral.
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