Mid-Term Study Guide
Functionalism: all parts of society work together in order to function as a whole. Herbert Spencer: he inspired functionalism from his writings that said the various parts of society worked together like the human body. Durkheim: helped make functionalism. He believed that society affects people’s behaviors (example of being rejected by society and the rejection being like a punishment). He also did a research study on suicide. Conflict Theory: sees society as a competition for limited resources (like social, political, and material resources). Karl Marx: helped make Conflict Theory. He was in favor of communism. He said the rich and the poor are in competition for things/resources. Symbolic Interactionism: communication is how people make sense of their social world; rationalization, logic, and efficiency. It helps understand the thinking and behavior of people. Weber: anti-positivism; rationalization, logic, and efficiency. Iron cage: people trapped by the bosses. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: you believe something so much that you act upon it and make it real. Robert K. Merton: self-fulfilling prophecy (reality made by an idea). Sapir-Worf Hypothesis: Culture is within language. Any interpretation of what reality is, is based on a society’s language. Every language has words and expressions that are specific to the language. Thomas Theorem: if someone believes in something, then it is truly real to them. False Consciousness: a condition when the beliefs, ideas, or ideology of a person aren’t in their best interest. Ethnocentrism: judging other cultures based on how it compares to their own. Xenocentrism: believing that another culture is superior to your own. Cultural Relativism: judging a culture by its own standards instead of your culture’s standards. Subculture: a smaller cultural group within the larger culture that has their own specific traits. Counterculture: a type of subculture that rejects some of the larger culture’s values....
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