Sociology notes

Topics: Sociology, Social class, Social stratification Pages: 11 (1854 words) Published: November 12, 2013

primary group
small group
face to face interaction
connected by emotions over long periods of time
non specialized
example: family

secondary group
a larger group
tends to be specialized
impersonal goal oriented relationships to meet a specific purpose people do not have emotional connections

social network- a series of loose social relationships that link an individual to others

formal organization- a highly structured groups formed to complete certain tasks or achieve certain goals

social institution- a set of organized beliefs, rules, practices, and social arrangements that establish how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs functionalists use institutions
conflict theorists don’t use

The Thomas Theorem- when a phenomena is believed to be real it becomes real in its consequences

Reality consists of the subjective assignment of meaning to phenomena that we experience

Phenomena in the world have no intrinsic or inherit meaning, but socially constructed

Meaning assignment is therefore, culturally and situationally specific, impacted by pre-held expectations as well as our initial definition of each orientation we encounter

Self fulfilling prophecy- a false belief or prediction producing behavior that makes the original false belief seem to come true

Erving Goffman
Says that everyone is an actor that deliver highly specialize performances, we act with purpose Presentation of self and everyday life
Book was top of best seller list
Dramaturgical analysis- application of theatrical terms and concepts of everyday life


Peter Berger:

The Social Construction of “Reality”
Reality is something that is subjectively held in each of our individual consciousness We assign meaning to the world individually and subjectively, but we do so within a social context Phenomena in the world would have no “intrinsic” or “inherent” meaning

Factors directly impacting subjective meaning assignment to phenomena’s The beliefs and values of ones particular culture
The particulars of our relationship with the phenomenon in question A person’s pre-held expectations about a particular phenomenon before going into a particular situation

The presentation of self in everyday life
When a person comes into contact with others, he or she will attempt to control or guide the impression that others might make of them by changing or fixing their setting; appearance and/or manner At the same time, the other person with whom the individual is interacting with is trying to form and obtain information about them Interactants actively work to maintain the “legitimacy” of the “self” they are presenting as “real” as well as the legitimacy of the performances being presented by others with whom they interact Actors work together to maintain “consensus”

Consensus- shared definition of the situation

Goffman’s Theoretical frame: “Dramaturgical Analysis”

Definition: Application of the terms and concepts of the theatre to the analysis of day-to-day life

It’s not that day-to-day life is like action in the theater. Its that “the theatres” contents and dynamics are modeled after day-to-day life.

Goffman: each of us is engaged (constantly) in a process called “impression management”

Definition: attempting to foster favorable impressions of one’s self in the minds of others

Each and every status you occupy is like a part in a play, each role like a script

Each status is like a different “theatre or action’…

Sincere vs. Insincere performance

Cynical performance- half-hearted, or otherwise characterized by cynicism

Actors always “size each other up”

Sign equipment or sign vehicles: any and everything that we se to give information about ourselves to others,

Expressions given- that which the actor claims to be the truth about themselves, the verbal component of the actor’s presentation

Expessions given off-...
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