Sociology Chapter 7 Summary

Topics: Sociology, Psychology, Sigmund Freud Pages: 2 (422 words) Published: May 13, 2014

Chapter 7 of Macionis and Plummer (2013) focuses on the idea of human societies through interactions of everyday life through the term ‘micro-society’. Building our social world is an important part where individuals participate in the interaction with others to form a ‘social construction of reality’, consequently, relying on social experiences to learn from their adopting behaviours of their cultures.

John. B. Watson believed that our behaviour is shaped by our responses to the environment in which we grow up. The comparison between Nature vs. Nurture is examined through the development of an individual and innate qualities and personal experiences of biological, environmental and social factors. The idea of different experiences within an infant leads to personal development, and the chapter cites an example of isolated children to prove that from experiencing such an event, one will result in permanent developmental damage.

Sigmund Freud’s theory of the unconscious development is incorporated to an individual’s emotional experiences, and is linked with necessary ‘drives’ that influence our personality; Id, Ego and Superego. Along with the Oedipus complex, these needs work together to acclimatize to the idea of society in everyday life. Herbet Mead and Watson are compared as they both perceived the potential of the environment to form an individual’s actions. Mead believed in ‘The self’, practiced only through social experience, and ‘The I and the Me’.

Erving Goffman believed particular traits based around the idea of how our actions are presented when we are around other people, and how we intently shape our identity to impress others. Harold Garfinkel’s, Ehtnomethodology theory is explained through the process of intentionally disturbing one’s social norms to view the way they repair it. This gives an insight on how individuals use a practical way of thinking in everyday life to conquer circumstances they may come across....

References: Macionis, J & Plummer (2012) Sociology: A global introduction, Harlow, Essex
McLeod, S. A. (2008). Id, Ego and Superego. Retrieved from, Accessed: 23 March 2012
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