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Sociology as a Science

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Sociology as a Science
Similar to other classes like Biology, Chemistry, and Physics, Sociology is a science. It is considered a science because sociologists use logical methods to uncover information about the social world (basically it is used to gain awareness and comprehension of how societies use and fallow trends and patterns). Like other sciences, sociology fallows systematic approaches when asking questions, forms theories to see if they can pertain to data, and then comes to a logical conclusion to the question asked that is founded by supportable knowledge. This cycle is how sociologists obtain information about the societies in our social lives, and then use that information to better our understanding of how common communities are formed while explaining why things happen in societal life.
First off, sociologists use theories to explain why and how incidents occur in society. Theories are basically logical explanations of how social trends and patters form, and why they take place. When starting the theory process, sociologists begin with information and/or observations. This information is gathered through methods. Then comes deductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning is testing theoretical propositions by making observations. From the observations, sociologists make generalizations- a process called theoretical explanations- based on the data observed, which is known as inductive reasoning. The next step in the theory process is to test the theories. This is centered on observations, which also give way to even more theories to try out. The theory process is generally like one whole cycle- sociologists form one theory, test it out, and then by doing so- make new theories to try and test out, and so on.
Methods are used in the process of testing out theories, and also go hand in hand to make observations about society concerning how trends and patterns form and function. Methods, like the sampling method, are used when testing theories as systematic procedures (different procedures, or methods, are adjusted to fit the circumstance) to make interpretations about gathered data. From there, methods refine and assess theories. This is how they go hand in hand with each other. To validate theories, sociologists need observations- which methods contribute to in the form of finding observations through procedures. At the same time, to understand and determine the observations, sociologists need theories. The relationship between theories and methods is a major part in finding out trends and patterns in social communities.
When it comes to theories and methods, hypothesis are what sociologists think the outcome of the tested theory is going to be. One tests a hypothesis through methods, or procedures, as stated earlier. The hypothesis formed by sociologists is tested by methods, and then validated or reevaluated based on the outcome of the test. An example of how this is done is like trying to find the relationship between isolation and depression. Saying that the hypothesis is that isolated people are generally depressed, one could test it by making multiple observations of isolated individuals in different settings with different backgrounds, and evaluating whether or not those individuals are happy and content with having no social contact, or if they are unhappy and depressed by not having any contact. If the results come out to be in favor of the hypothesis, and more tests are run with the same result, then the hypothesis is verifiable. Overall, theories, methods, and hypothesis all work together to form analyses of the social trends and patterns of the world.

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