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Sociology and Social Care

By xxkiimberleyxx Apr 30, 2014 2824 Words
Unit 7:

Sociological Perspectives for
Health and Social Care

Unit code:

M/601/2402

QCF Level 3:

BTEC Nationals

Credit value:

5

Guided learning hours: 30
Aim and purpose
This unit aims to enable learners to gain an understanding of the different sociological approaches that can be used when studying and how these approaches can be used to study health and social care.

Unit introduction
Sociology is the study of society, and is a method of enquiry and explanation. In this unit learners will gain an understanding of sociology as a discipline and the different sociological perspectives. They will then consider the application of different sociological approaches to the understanding of a number of concepts within health and social care. This will include exploring the social dimension of health and illness. Sociologists argue that health and illness have two aspects to them. The first of these is biological, and there are clearly distinct states of discomfort, pain and abnormality that can be considered to be ill health. The second aspect, however, involves how the concepts of health and illness are themselves considered, and sociologists consider the cultural dimensions of these concepts. Learners will also examine health inequalities among different groups of people in society, and the range of explanations that sociologists have suggested for these inequalities. The unit will encourage learners to be reflective, and will be valuable to those learners intending to work with people in a caring capacity. It will also be useful for learners who intend to progress to study at a higher level. The sociological approach is embedded in several other units in the programme and is extended in Unit 19: Applied Sociological Perspectives for Health and Social Care.

Learning outcomes
On completion of this unit a learner should:

1

Understand sociological perspectives

2

Understand sociological approaches to health and social care.

Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Health and Social Care – Issue 1 – June 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

1

Unit content
1 Understand sociological perspectives
Terminology: social structures, eg the family, education system, health care services; social diversity, eg social class, gender, culture, ethnicity, age, locality; socialisation, eg norms, values, beliefs, roles, status Principle sociological perspectives: functionalism, Marxism, feminism, interactionism, collectivism, postmodernism, ‘New Right’

2 Understand sociological approaches to health and social care Application of sociological perspectives to health and social care: understanding different concepts of health and ill health; understanding patterns and trends in health and illness among different social groupings Understanding different concepts of health and ill health: concepts of health (negative, positive, holistic, World Health Organization definition); models of health (biomedical, socio-medical); ill health (illness, disability, disease); the sick role; the clinical iceberg

Understanding patterns and trends in health and illness among different social groupings: measurement of health, eg morbidity rates, mortality rates, health events, disease incidence, disease prevalence, health surveillance; difficulties in measuring health; patterns and trends according to, eg social class, gender, ethnicity, age, locality; risk behaviour; sociological explanations (artefact, natural/social selection, cultural/ behavioural, materialist/structuralist)

2

Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Health and Social Care – Issue 1 – June 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

Assessment and grading criteria
In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Assessment and grading criteria
To achieve a pass grade the
evidence must show that the
learner is able to:

To achieve a merit grade the
evidence must show that, in
addition to the pass criteria,
the learner is able to:

P1

explain the principal
sociological perspectives
[IE3; IE4; CT2; CT4; SM3]

M1 assess the biomedical and
socio-medical models of
health

P2

explain different sociological
approaches to health and ill
health
[CT4]

P3

explain patterns and trends
in health and illness among
different social groupings.
[IE3, IE4, CT4; SM3]

M2 use different sociological
perspectives to discuss
patterns and trends of health
and illness in two different
social groups.

To achieve a distinction grade
the evidence must show that,
in addition to the pass and
merit criteria, the learner is
able to:

D1

evaluate different sociological
explanations for patterns and
trends of health and illness in
two different social groups.

PLTS: This summary references where applicable, in the square brackets, the elements of the personal, learning and thinking skills which are embedded in the assessment of this unit. By achieving the criteria, learners will have demonstrated effective application of the referenced elements of the skills. IE – independent enquirers

RL – reflective learners

SM – self-managers

CT – creative thinkers

Key

TW – team workers

EP – effective participators

Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Health and Social Care – Issue 1 – June 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

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Essential guidance for tutors
Delivery
This unit should be delivered using a mixture of tutor input and learner-led activity, such as research, role play and case studies and, where appropriate, guest speakers from a variety of health and social care settings and other appropriate practitioners. Initially, learners should explore the principal sociological perspectives and their relevance to approaches to health and ill health. Learners could work in small groups to identify these different sociological perspectives, and then apply them to the study of health and ill health. From this information learners will move on to assess both the biomedical and socio-medical models of health and, where appropriate, supported by the tutor apply these models to their lives so far and also within the health and social care sector.

Once learners are familiar with the principal sociological perspectives, approaches to health and ill health, and both the biomedical and socio-medical models of health, they should progress to investigate patterns and trends in health and illness among different social groupings. Many learners find this very interesting and they will be able to source up-to-date patterns and trends in health and illness by accessing ‘social trends’ from the Office of National Statistics website. They will then investigate these different patterns and trends by applying the different sociological approaches already studied. They should focus on two different social groupings for this. They will evaluate this for a distinction grade.

It is important that P1, P2 and M1 are delivered and covered before P3, M2 and D1, as without these three initial criteria being covered/achieved learners will be unable to successfully approach P3. Learners should be given opportunities, and time, to develop and practise their research skills when carrying out their investigations for this unit. Arrangements for interactions within the workplace should be discussed and agreed with the tutor and work supervisor/mentor.

In addition to learners accessing a health or social care setting for workplace experience it would be very useful to bring the world of the workplace into the classroom, giving learners applied learning opportunities and also the opportunity to question practitioners. Therefore time should be put aside for learners to prepare questions for visiting practitioners before their visit to get the most out of these opportunities. Learners should be encouraged at all times to be reflective and to develop an awareness of their feelings, thoughts and experiences relating to the different models, patterns and trends of health and ill health.

4

Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Health and Social Care – Issue 1 – June 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

Outline learning plan
The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments.
The outline learning plan demonstrates one way in planning the delivery and assessment of this unit. Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment
Unit introduction.
Guest speaker: for example local authority practitioner working in the health department (ideally strategic director or similar).
Learning outcome 1

Tutor input: sociological perspectives to study.
Buzz group/learner research: different principal sociological perspectives. Case studies: on health and ill health and the use of the different models of health – biomedical and sociomedical. Discussion: the different perspectives and learner experiences of attitudes to health and ill health. Assignment 1: Sociological approaches (P1, P2, M1)

Produce an information booklet covering an:


explanation of the principal sociological perspectives



explanation of the different sociological approaches to health and ill health



assessment of the biomedical and socio-medical models of health.

Learning outcome 2

Tutor input: sociological approaches to health and social care. Learner research: investigate national and local social trends regarding health and ill health. Guest speakers: Q&A session with a researcher involved in using national and local social trend statistics on health an ill health.

Case studies: of different patterns and trends of health and ill health. Learner research: investigate social trends of health via Office of National Statistics (website). Assignment 2: Patterns and trends in health and illness (P3, M2, D1)

Plan and take part in a investigation covering an:






explanation of the patterns and trends in health and illness among different social groupings discussion (using the different sociological perspectives) of the patterns and trends of health and illness in two different social groups

evaluation of the different sociological explanations for patterns and trends of health and illness in two different social groups.

Unit review and assessment.

Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Health and Social Care – Issue 1 – June 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

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Assessment
This unit should be delivered and assessed with as much employer engagement/workplace learning opportunities as is appropriate and relevant.
The learning outcomes can be met through two different assignments where learners are asked to present their evidence using a variety of methods.
Assignment 1 could be presented in the form of an information booklet. This can be produced however learners prefer, but it must be explanatory in nature and not just descriptive to meet the requirements of P1. Assignment 2 could take the form of a report/essay or presentation as appropriate. Learning outcome 1 is achieved by meeting P1 and M1 and learning outcome 2 by meeting P2, P3, M2 and D1.

Assignments set can be assessed whenever is the most appropriate time the tutor and learners, the order in which they should be completed is important, Assignment 1 should be completed first in order for learners to have the knowledge required to be able to approach Assignment 2. In order to pass the unit learners must achieve a pass grade for each learning outcome, all three pass criteria are spread across both assignments, and both assignments must be covered and assessed. All three pass criteria must be achieved before merit grade criteria can be assessed. The merit criteria must be achieved before distinction grade criteria can be assessed.

Pass grade learners will, on the whole, produce evidence that is an explanation. Merit grade learners, in addition to the above, will also produce evidence that shows they have carried out an assessment and examination.

Distinction grade learners, in addition to the above, will also include an evaluation in their evidence. Learners may like to carry out their plans and investigations/research in small friendship groups, this is acceptable but final evidence for assessment must be individually produced pieces of work. Tutors are encouraged to embed personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS) for as many opportunities as is appropriate within classroom-based activities, applied learning/contextualised activities and assessment.

6

Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Health and Social Care – Issue 1 – June 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

Programme of suggested assignments
The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the pass, merit and distinction criteria in the assessment and grading grid. This is for guidance and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt any Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources. Criteria covered

Assignment title

Scenario

P1, P2, M1

Sociological approaches You work for local
government.

P3, M2, D1

Patterns and trends in
health and illness

At work you have been asked
to investigate the need for a
new, larger health centre for
the locality.

Assessment method
Information booklet.
Investigation report/essay.

You ultimately need to
investigate the social trends
regarding health and illness
in your locality to discover
whether there is a need for a
new health centre.
You will share your information
with your colleagues.

Links to National Occupational Standards (NOS), other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit forms part of the BTEC Health and Social Care sector suite (see Appendix A) and has links with units from other qualifications in that suite. See Appendix E for NOS links and Appendix G for a mapping of the NHS Knowledge and Skills Framework against particular units in this qualification.

Essential resources
Learners will require access to library facilities, including relevant texts, professional magazines and journals, CD ROMs, current newspapers and ICT facilities including the internet, with tutor guidance to avoid inappropriate use. Guest speakers who work in the statutory, private and voluntary sectors will enhance learning.

Social trends, particularly regarding health patterns and trends, are an essential resource and can be accessed via a central library or the Office for National Statistics website.

Employer engagement and vocational contexts
Visits from speakers employed within the health and social care sectors and representatives of particular bodies in society associated with health inequalities and trends will enhance learner understanding. Learners would also benefit from visits to organisations.

The local authority will be useful for this unit. The local authority will have several departments who deal with health as part of their daily work. The first point of contact for this unit in this context will be the local authority human resources department.

Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Health and Social Care – Issue 1 – June 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

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Indicative reading for learners
Textbooks

Asbridge L, Lavers S, Moonie N and Scott J – BTEC First Health and Social Care (Heinemann, 2006) ISBN 9780435463328
Baldock J, Manning N, Miller S and Vickerstaff S – Social Policy (Oxford University Press, 1999) ISBN 9780198781738
Clarke L – Health and Social Care GCSE (Nelson Thornes, 2002) ISBN 9780748770724 Eden S – Society, Health and Development Level 1 Foundation Diploma (Pearson, 2008) ISBN 9780435500900
Haralambos M and Holborn M – Sociology Themes and Perspectives (Collins Educational, 2008) ISBN 9780007245956
Haworth E, Allen B, Forshaw C, Nicol D, Volbracht A and Leach J – Society, Health and Development Level 2 Higher Diploma (Pearson, 2008) ISBN 9780435401030
Lovell T and Cordeaux C – Social Policy for Health and Social Care (Hodder and Stoughton, 1999) ISBN 9780340683613
Mason L, Horne S and Irvine J – BTEC Introduction Health and Social Care (Heinemann, 2004) ISBN 978435462451
Moore S – Social Welfare Alive Third Edition (Nelson Thornes, 2002) ISBN 9780748765614 Moore S, Chapman S and Aiken D – Sociology for AS-level (Collins educational, 2001) ISBN 9780007113149 Stretch B and Whitehouse M – BTEC Level 3 Nationals in Health and Social Care Student Book 1 (Pearson, 2010) ISBN 9781846907663

Stretch B and Whitehouse M – BTEC Level 3 Nationals in Health and Social Care Student Book 2 (Pearson, 2010) ISBN 9781846907470
Journal

Sociology Review (Phillip Allen Updates)
Websites

www.dh.gov.uk

Department of Health

www.official-documents.co.uk/document/doh/ih/
ih.htm

Government website that contains the 1998
Independent Inquiry into Inequalities in Health Report

www.ohn.gov.uk/ohn/ohn.htm

Our Healthier Nation website

www.statistics.gov.uk/socialtrends

Office for National Statistics

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Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Health and Social Care – Issue 1 – June 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills
The table below identifies the opportunities for personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS) that have been included within the pass assessment criteria of this unit.
Skill

When learners are …

Independent enquirers

[IE3] investigating the different principal sociological perspectives and approaches to health and ill health
[IE4] analysing and evaluating information, judging its relevance and value

Creative thinkers

[CT4] questioning their own and others’ assumptions on the concept of health

Self-managers

[SM3] organising time and resources, prioritising actions to meet assessment deadlines.

Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Health and Social Care – Issue 1 – June 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

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Functional Skills – Level 2
Skill

When learners are …

ICT – Use ICT systems
Manage information storage to enable
efficient retrieval

retrieving work saved throughout their investigation into the principal sociological perspectives and the different sociological approaches to health and ill health

ICT – Find and select information
Select and use a variety of sources of
researching and investigating patterns and trends in health and information independently for a complex task illness among different social groupings ICT – Develop, present and
communicate information
Bring together information to suit content
and purpose

organising findings from research to suit assignments as evidence for learning outcomes

Present information in ways that are fit for
purpose and audience

presenting information in different ways for different audiences, eg information booklet and report/essay

English
Speaking and listening – make a range of
contributions to discussions and make
effective presentations in a wide range of
contexts

discussing patterns and trends of health and illness in two social groupings, from different sociological perspectives

Reading – compare, select, read and
understand texts and use them to gather
information, ideas, arguments and opinions

researching textbooks and websites regarding patterns and trends of health and illness

Writing – write documents, including
extended writing pieces, communicating
information, ideas and opinions, effectively
and persuasively

producing an information booklet for Assignment 1 and a report for Assignment 2.

10

Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Health and Social Care – Issue 1 – June 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

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