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See also: Wikibooks:Social Deviance
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Deviance, in a sociological context, describes actions or behaviors that violate social norms, including formally-enacted rules (e.g., crime), as well as informal violations of social norms (e.g., rejecting folkways and mores). It is the purview of sociologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, and criminologists to study how these norms are created, how they change over time and how they are enforced.Contents [hide] 1 Deviance as a violation of social norms
1.1 Deviance as reactive construction
2.1.1 Durkheim's Basic Insight
2.1.2 Merton's strain theory
2.2 Symbolic interaction
2.2.1 Sutherland's differential association
2.2.2 Neutralization theory
2.2.3 Labeling theory
2.2.4 Primary and secondary deviation
2.2.5 Control theory
2.3 Conflict theory
2.3.1 Karl Marx
2.3.2 Michel Foucault
2.3.3 Biological theories of deviance
2.4 Other theories
3 Functions of deviance
4 Cross-cultural communication as deviance
5 Types of deviance
6 The Criminal Justice System
7 Deviance in literature/film
8 See also
Deviance as a violation of social norms
Norms are rules and expectations by which members of society are conventionally guided. Deviance is a failure to conform to these norms.  Social norms are different in one culture as opposed to another. For example, a deviant act can be committed in one society that breaks a social norm there, but may be normal for another society.
Viewing deviance as a violation of social norms, sociologists have characterized it as "any thought, feeling or action that members of a social group judge to be a violation of their values or rules"; "violation of the norms of a society or group"; "conduct that violates definitions of appropriate and inappropriate conduct shared by the members of a social system"; "the departure of certain types of behavior from the norms of a particular society at a particular time"; and "violation of certain types of group norms [... where] behavior is in a disapproved direction and of...
References: MB Clinard and RF Meier, Sociology of deviant behavior. 1968.
Simon Dinitz, Russell Rowe Dynes and Alfred Carpenter Clarke, Deviance: studies in definition, management, and treatment. 1975.
JD Douglas and FC Waksler FC, The sociology of deviance: an introduction. Boston: Little, Brown, 1982.
Gary F. Jensen, The path of the devil: early modern witch hunts. Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.
Donal E. J. MacNamara and Andrew Karmen, DEVIANTS: Victims or Victimizers? Beverly Hills, California: Sage, 1983.
Doug Thomson, Crime and deviance. 2004.
"Types of Deviance." Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <http://plato.acadiau.ca/courses/soci/thomson/criminaljustice/deviance/deviance.htm>.
Correctional Service of Canada Welcome Page. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/rsrch/reports/r161/r161-eng.shtml>.
"The Criminal Justice System" Macionis, J., and Gerber, L. (2010). Sociology, 7th edition.
"Emile Durkheim"s Basic Insight" Macionis, J., and Gerber, L. (2010). Sociology, 7th edition
^ Macionis, John (2011). Sociology. Toronto: Pearson Canada.
^ Goode, E. (2004). Deviant Behavior (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
^ Macionis and Gerber, John, Linda (2011). Sociology 7th Canadian Edition. Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Canada Inc.. pp. 200. ISBN 978-0-13-700161-3.
^ Jim Mitchell and Richard A. Dodder, (1983),
^ Jensen 2001: 88.
^ a b c Macionis, Gerber, John, Linda (2010). Sociology 7th Canadian Ed. Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Canada Inc.. pp. 204
^ Wadsworth, Tim
^ Steiner, Benjamin,and John Wooldredge."The relevance of inmate race/ethnicity versus population composition for understanding prison rule violations." "Punishment & Society". 11(2009):459–489.
^ Hastings, Stephanie E. and Thomas A. O 'Neil. "Predicting workplace deviance using broad versus narrow personality variables." Personality & Individual Differences.47 (2009):289–293.
^ Kong, Travis S. K. More Than a Sex Machine: Accomplishing Masculinity Among Chinese Male Sex Workers in the Hong Kong Sex Industry.Deviant Behavior. 30 (2009)715–745.
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