The human infant comes into the world as a biological organism with animal needs. He is gradually molded into a social being and he learns social ways of acting and feeling. Without this process of molding, the society could not continue itself, nor could culture exist, nor could the individual become a person. This process of molding is called 'Socialization'. Every man tries to adjust himself to the condition and environment predominantly determined by the society of which he is a member. If he fails to do so, he becomes a social defiant and is brought back into line by the efforts of the group of which he is a member. This process of adjustment may be termed socialization. Different sociologists have defined socialization in different ways. According to E.S. Bogardus "Socialization is the process of working together, of developing group responsibility or being guided by the welfare needs of others", W.F. Ogburn defines "Socialization is the process by which the individual learns to conform to the norms of the group." Lundberg says that "Socialization consists of the complex processes of interaction through which the individual learns the habits, beliefs, skills and standards of judgment that are necessary for his effective participation in social groups and communities." According to H.T. Majumdar "Socialization as the process whereby original nature is transformed into human nature and the individual into person". A.W. Green opines, "Socialization is the process by which the child acquires a cultural content, along with selfhood and personality". According to Horton and Hunt "Socialization is the process by which one internalizes the norms of his groups, so that a distinct "self" emerges, unique to this individual. Peter Worsley explains "Socialization as the process of transmission of culture, the process whereby men learn the rules and practices of social groups. Agencies of Socialization:
The process of socialization is operative not only in childhood but through out life. It is a process, which begins at birth and continues unceasingly until the death of the individual. It is an incessant process. Formerly, the term socialization had not been applied to adult learning experiences but had been restricted to children. More recently, however, the concept of socialization has been broadened to include aspects of adult behavior as well. It is now thought of "as an interaction process whereby a person's behavior is modified to confirm with expectations held by members of the groups to which he belongs". Thinkers describe the process with reference to children only because as are introduced when the person becomes conscious of self and others are absent. When the person begins to read books, listen to stories and is enabled to have an imagination of ideal society, it becomes difficult to separate the subjective factors from the objective ones and assess their respective contribution in the socialization of the child. Since socialization is an important matter for society, it is not desirable that the child's socialization should be left to mere accident but should be controlled through institutional channels. What a child is going to be is more important than what he is. It is socialization, which turns the child into a useful member of the society and gives him social maturity. Therefore it is of paramount need to know as to who socializes the child. There are two sources of child's socialization. The first includes those who have authority over him; the second are those who are equal in authority to him. The first category may include parents, teachers, and elderly persons. The second one includes the playmates, the friends and the fellows in the club. His training varies in content and significance according as it is acquired from one or the other source. In one category is the relationship of constraint, in the other it is that of co-operation. The relationship of constraint is based on unilateral respect for person...
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