Top-Rated Free Essay

Sociology

Satisfactory Essays
Topics: Sociology
(Some of the) Key Thinkers: Beliefs in Society

NAME
CONTRIBUTION
CONCEPT
Armstrong
Feminist: Religion ‘not been particularly good to women…usually male affairs with women relegated to marginal positions’

Barker
Making of a Moonie: most members from middle class (link to relative deprivation as appeal of sects/NRMs)

Bellah
Functionalist: religion in US = ‘Americanism’ + Decline in influence of religious institutions not evidence of secularisation, but move to individual belief/practice
Civil religion + Americanism
Berger
Interpretivist: religious explanations enable people to make sense of world
Homeless mind
Bunting
Religion now is characteristic of postmodernism i.e. way to construct ID (consumer choice of NRM/NAMs)has led to religion being like a DIY cocktail

Daly
Feminist: religion acts as ideological patriarchal force
Patriarchy
Davie
Religious belief = widespread, but nowadays expressed privately not within religious institutions
‘Belief without belonging’
Durkheim
Functionalist: definition of religion based on sacred vs. profane (beliefs/practices based thereon) + religion = worship of society (based on totemism) + religion has functions* + Changes with modernity (won’t disappear? Sacred symbols still needed)
*Social solidarity + Collective conscience + Value consensus
Engels
Neo-marxist: Religious movements originate in oppressed classes (e.g. Christianity) – could be source of change?
Liberation theology
Heelas
NAMs: self-religions (evidence of rejection of science/rationality), found minor growth in NAMs during Kendal Project.
Holistic milieu
Herberg
Despite high attendance in US, argues secularisation occurs within religious organisations (i.e. source of ID/community – not authentic religion)
Authentic religion
Lyotard
Postmodern society characterised by loss of confidence in grand explanations/theories or metanarratives (of science & religion)
Metanarrative
Maduro
Neo-Marxist: religion can be revolutionary, challenging ruling class dominance (Latin America), priests aiding oppressed
Liberation theology
Malinowski
Functionalist: religion deals with (a) life crises (esp. death) (b) events where outcome is uncertain  anxiety (threats to social order)

Marx
Religion compensates (‘opium’) for ruling class oppression + acts as social control mechanism  working class unaware of exploitation (false consciousness)/don’t challenge social order + religion will disappear after communism replaces capitalism
Opium of the people + ruling class ideology
Miller and Hoffman
Women: more religious/attend church more due to socialised into characteristics associated with religiosity + less in paid work, more time for religion
Differential socialisation/ roles
Niebuhr
Originator of concept of denomination
+ looked at sect development (don’t survive beyond generation)
Death or denomination
Parsons
Functionalist: religion provides behavioural guidelines + helps adjust to unforeseen events/uncertainty + gives meaning to life + Disengagement  church loses functions (structural differentiation) but religion still provides meaning & values
Core values
Stark and Bainbridge
Religion wont disappear, but pluralism results from people turning away from traditional religions in search of supernatural and religious compensators
Compensators
Troeltsch
Developed church/sect typology
Church & sect
Wallis
Developed 3-fold typology of NRMs (vs. sect/cult confusion)
+ origins of NRMs W-rejecting: transformation of society
+ origins of NRMs W-affirming: self-improvement/spiritual growth
World rejecting, accommodating & affirming NRMs
Watson
Study of veiling: veil has power to liberate/not necessarily repressive (Western perspective - ethnocentric?)

Weber
Religion: possible force for social change (e.g. Calvinism/Protestant work ethic  work practices/spirit of capitalism) + religious explanations for lowly social position  sect formation + Reason replaces faith (demystification due to rationalisation starting with Protestantism)  secularisation
Theodicy of disprivilege,
Rationalisation, disenchantment
Wilson
Secularisation theorist – developed 5 measures e.g. rationalisation, disengagement, participation, secularisation of religion organisations, pluralism + sects form in response to social change (esp. industrialisation) + the aim of a sect determines its future (Adventist/conversionist)
Secularisation + secularisation thesis

(Some of the) Key Thinkers: Beliefs in Society

NAME
CONTRIBUTION
CONCEPT

Feminist: Religion ‘not been particularly good to women…usually male affairs with women relegated to marginal positions’

Making of a Moonie: most members from middle class (link to relative deprivation as appeal of sects/NRMs)

Functionalist: religion in US = ‘Americanism’ + Decline in influence of religious institutions not evidence of secularisation, but move to individual belief/practice
Civil religion + Americanism

Interpretivist: religious explanations enable people to make sense of world
Homeless mind

Religion now is characteristic of postmodernism i.e. way to construct ID (consumer choice of NRM/NAMs)has led to religion being like a DIY cocktail

Feminist: religion acts as ideological patriarchal force
Patriarchy

Religious belief = widespread, but nowadays expressed privately not within religious institutions
‘Belief without belonging’

Functionalist: definition of religion based on sacred vs. profane (beliefs/practices based thereon) + religion = worship of society (based on totemism) + religion has functions* + Changes with modernity (won’t disappear? Sacred symbols still needed)
*Social solidarity + Collective conscience + Value consensus

Neo-marxist: Religious movements originate in oppressed classes (e.g. Christianity) – could be source of change?
Liberation theology

NAMs: self-religions (evidence of rejection of science/rationality), found minor growth in NAMs during Kendal Project.
Holistic milieu

Despite high attendance in US, argues secularisation occurs within religious organisations (i.e. source of ID/community – not authentic religion)
Authentic religion

Postmodern society characterised by loss of confidence in grand explanations/theories or metanarratives (of science & religion)
Metanarrative

Neo-Marxist: religion can be revolutionary, challenging ruling class dominance (Latin America), priests aiding oppressed
Liberation theology

Functionalist: religion deals with (a) life crises (esp. death) (b) events where outcome is uncertain  anxiety (threats to social order)

Religion compensates (‘opium’) for ruling class oppression + acts as social control mechanism  working class unaware of exploitation (false consciousness)/don’t challenge social order + religion will disappear after communism replaces capitalism
Opium of the people + ruling class ideology

Women: more religious/attend church more due to socialised into characteristics associated with religiosity + less in paid work, more time for religion
Differential socialisation/ roles

Originator of concept of denomination
+ looked at sect development (don’t survive beyond generation)
Death or denomination

Functionalist: religion provides behavioural guidelines + helps adjust to unforeseen events/uncertainty + gives meaning to life + Disengagement  church loses functions (structural differentiation) but religion still provides meaning & values
Core values

Religion wont disappear, but pluralism results from people turning away from traditional religions in search of supernatural and religious compensators
Compensators

Developed church/sect typology
Church & sect

Developed 3-fold typology of NRMs (vs. sect/cult confusion)
+ origins of NRMs W-rejecting: transformation of society
+ origins of NRMs W-affirming: self-improvement/spiritual growth
World rejecting, accommodating & affirming NRMs

Study of veiling: veil has power to liberate/not necessarily repressive (Western perspective - ethnocentric?)

Religion: possible force for social change (e.g. Calvinism/Protestant work ethic  work practices/spirit of capitalism) + religious explanations for lowly social position  sect formation + Reason replaces faith (demystification due to rationalisation starting with Protestantism)  secularisation
Theodicy of disprivilege,
Rationalisation, disenchantment

Secularisation theorist – developed 5 measures e.g. rationalisation, disengagement, participation, secularisation of religion organisations, pluralism + sects form in response to social change (esp. industrialisation) + the aim of a sect determines its future (Adventist/conversionist)
Secularisation + secularisation thesis

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Satisfactory Essays

    SOC-402 Week 4 DQ 1.doc SOC-402 Week 4 DQ 2.doc SOC-402 Week 4 Quiz.pdf SOC-402 Week 5 DQ 1.doc SOC-402 Week 5 DQ 2.doc SOC-402 Week 5 Workplace crime.doc Sociology - General Sociology Three Sociological Perspectives . Compare the differences among the three major theoretical perspectives in sociology (structural-functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism). With which theory and theorist do you find that you share similar views with and why? Qualitative…

    • 674 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    sociology

    • 549 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Auguste Comte [1798 - 1857] - The Founding Father of Sociology Auguste Comte, the French Philosopher, is traditionally considered the "Father of Sociology". Comte who invented the term "Sociology" was the first man to distinguish the subject-matter of sociology from all the other sciences. He worked out in a series of books, a general approach to the study of society. Comte is regarded as the "Father of Sociology" not because of any significant contributions to the science as such, but because…

    • 549 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Sociology

    • 1656 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Sociology which is known as the science of society, is one of the youngest as well as one of the oldest of the social sciences. It is one of the youngest sciences because only recently it came to be established as a distinct branch of knowledge with its own distinct set of concepts and its own methods of inquiry. Sociology is also one of the oldest of the sciences. Since the dawn of civilization, society has been as a subject for speculation and inquiry along with other phenomena which have agitated…

    • 1656 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    sociology

    • 781 Words
    • 4 Pages

    studies • Environment • History • Human geography • International relations • Internet • Law • Linguistics • Media • Politics • Psychology • Social psychology • Social work • Sociology Essay on Relationship Between Sociology and Education Essay on Relationship Between Sociology and Education – Sociology and Education, as two branches of knowledge, concerned essentially with man and his life, are intimately refuted. Education has come to be one of the basic activities of human societ¬ies…

    • 781 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Sociology

    • 4385 Words
    • 18 Pages

    SW1C1 -SOCIOLOGY AND ECONOMICS FOR SOCIAL WORK Module 1 Introduction to Sociology 1.1 Introduction In the family of social sciences, Sociology is comparatively a new entrant. But because of its dealing with social problems, social relationships and social interactions the importance of the study of this subject has considerably increased. It has considerably developed in methodology, scope and approach. Sociology is the systematic study of social behavior and human groups. It focuses primarily…

    • 4385 Words
    • 18 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Sociology

    • 3695 Words
    • 15 Pages

    DEFINITION Sociology is the scientific study of human society and its origins, development, organizations, and institutions. Sociology can be considered a science as it involves systematic methods of empirical research, analysis of data and the assessment of theories. In addition, it asks questions which can be quantified. Sociology is a discipline that expands our awareness and analysis of the human social relationships, cultures, and institutions that profoundly shape both our lives and…

    • 3695 Words
    • 15 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Sociology

    • 1369 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Sociology Sociology is the scientific study of human social life either in groups or societies – known sometimes as the study of social interplays. It is a relatively new academic trend developed earlier in the 19th century and focuses the social rules and processes that affect the relationships between individuals, organizations and individuals. Sociology is interested in our behavior and ranges in its spheres from the analysis of the short communications between the individuals in street…

    • 1369 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Sociology

    • 1111 Words
    • 5 Pages

    8 reasons for regarding sociology as a Science It is true that a scientific study of social phenomena is not free from difficulties. Study of society by their very nature cannot be exact like natural and physical sciences. But it is not correct to say that there is no possibility of sociology becoming a science. It is true that a scientific study of social phenomena is not free from difficulties. Study of society by their very nature cannot be exact like natural and physical sciences. But it…

    • 1111 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Sociology

    • 1832 Words
    • 8 Pages

    ------------------------------------------------- Types of Sociology Not all universities approach sociology the same way, and the new science evolved differently depending on where it was taught and who was teaching it. The two major types of sociology that emerged were qualitative sociologyand quantitative sociology. Today, most universities use both qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry, and one method is not necessarily better than the other. Qualitative Sociology At the University of Chicago, Albion…

    • 1832 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Sociology

    • 2635 Words
    • 11 Pages

    What is Sociology Sociology is the ordered, logical study of human society and its origins, development, organizations, and institutions. It is a social science which uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about human social activity, structures, and functions. A goal for many sociologists is to conduct research which may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, while others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding…

    • 2635 Words
    • 11 Pages
    Good Essays