Top-Rated Free Essay

sociology

Satisfactory Essays
The status of women in India has been subject to many great changes over the past few millennia.[4][5] From equal status with men in ancient times[6] through the low points of the medieval period,[7] to the promotion of equal rights by many reformers, the history of women in India has been eventful. Women were considered inferior to men in practical life. But in scriptures they were given high position. Thus in past, the status of women in India was not clear. It was theoretically high but practically low. Women were prohibited to take part in domestic as well as in external matter. They were under the influence of their parents before marriage and their husbands after marriage.

Ancient India
Scholars believe that in ancient India, women enjoyed equal status with men in all aspects of life.[14] However, some have contrary views.[15] Works by ancient Indian grammarians such as Patanjali and Katyayana suggest that women were educated in the early Vedic period.[16][17] Rigvedic verses suggest that women married at a mature age and were probably free to select their own husbands.[18] Scriptures such as the Rig Veda and Upanishads mention several women sages and seers, notably Gargi and Maitreyi.[19]
According to studies, women enjoyed equal status and rights during the early Vedic period.[22] However in approximately 500 B.C., the status of women began to decline with the Smritis (esp. Manusmriti), and with the Islamic invasion of Babur and the Mughal empire and Christianity later curtailing women's freedom and rights.[7][dead link]
Although reform movements such as Jainism allowed women to be admitted to religious orders, by and large women in India faced confinement and restrictions.[22] The practice of child marriages is believed to have started around the sixth century.[23]

Medieval period
Indian women's position in society further deteriorated during the medieval period,[7][14] when Sati, child marriages and a ban on remarriage by widows became part of social life in some communities in India. The Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent brought purdah to Indian society. Among the Rajputs of Rajasthan, the Jauhar was practised. In some parts of India, the Devadasis or temple women were sexually exploited. Polygamy was widely practised, especially among Hindu Kshatriya rulers.[23] In many Muslim families, women were restricted to Zenana areas of the house.
In spite of these conditions, some women became prominent in the fields of politics, literature, education and religion.[7] Razia Sultana became the only woman monarch to have ever ruled Delhi. The Gond queen Durgavati ruled for fifteen years before losing her life in a battle with Mughal emperor Akbar's general Asaf Khan in 1564 etc.

British rule
European scholars observed in the 19th century that Hindu women are "naturally chaste" and "more virtuous" than other women.[33] During the British Raj, many reformers such as Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Jyotirao Phule, etc., fought for the betterment of women. Peary Charan Sarkar, a former student of Hindu College, Calcutta and a member of "Young Bengal", set up the first free school for girls in India in 1847 in Barasat. Many women reformers such as Pandita Ramabai also helped the cause of women. Rani Lakshmi Bai, the Queen of Jhansi, led the Indian Rebellion of 1857 against the British. She is now widely considered as a national hero. The Begums of Bhopal were also considered notable female rulers during this period. They did not observe purdah and were trained in martial arts. In 1917, the first women's delegation met the Secretary of State to demand women's political rights, supported by the Indian National Congress. The All India Women's Education Conference was held in Pune in 1927.[35] In 1929, through the efforts of Mahomed Ali Jinnah, the Child Marriage Restraint Act was passed, stipulating fourteen as the minimum age of marriage for a girl. Women played an important part in India's independence struggle.

Independent India
Women in India now participate fully in areas such as education, sports, politics, media, art and culture, service sectors, science and technology, etc.[7] Indira Gandhi, who served as Prime Minister of India for an aggregate period of fifteen years, is the world's longest serving woman Prime Minister.[38]The Constitution of India guarantees to all Indian women equality (Article 14), no discrimination by the State (Article 15(1)), equality of opportunity (Article 16), and equal pay for equal work (Article 39(d)). In addition, it allows special provisions to be made by the State in favour of women and children (Article 15(3)), renounces practices derogatory to the dignity of women (Article 51(A) (e)), and also allows for provisions to be made by the State for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. (Article 42).[39]
In 1990s, grants from foreign donor agencies enabled the formation of new women-oriented NGOs. Self-help groups and NGOs such as Self Employed Women's Association (SEWA) have played a major role in the advancement of women's rights in India. Many women have emerged as leaders of local movements; for example, Medha Patkar of the Narmada Bachao Andolan.
The Government of India declared 2001 as the Year of Women's Empowerment (Swashakti).[22] The National Policy For The Empowerment Of Women came was passed in 2001.[41]In 2010 March 9, one day after International Women's day, Rajya Sabha passed the Women's Reservation Bill requiring that 33% of seats in India's Parliament and state legislative bodies be reserved for women.[43]

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Satisfactory Essays

    SOC-402 Week 4 DQ 1.doc SOC-402 Week 4 DQ 2.doc SOC-402 Week 4 Quiz.pdf SOC-402 Week 5 DQ 1.doc SOC-402 Week 5 DQ 2.doc SOC-402 Week 5 Workplace crime.doc Sociology - General Sociology Three Sociological Perspectives . Compare the differences among the three major theoretical perspectives in sociology (structural-functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism). With which theory and theorist do you find that you share similar views with and why? Qualitative…

    • 674 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    sociology

    • 549 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Auguste Comte [1798 - 1857] - The Founding Father of Sociology Auguste Comte, the French Philosopher, is traditionally considered the "Father of Sociology". Comte who invented the term "Sociology" was the first man to distinguish the subject-matter of sociology from all the other sciences. He worked out in a series of books, a general approach to the study of society. Comte is regarded as the "Father of Sociology" not because of any significant contributions to the science as such, but because…

    • 549 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Sociology

    • 1656 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Sociology which is known as the science of society, is one of the youngest as well as one of the oldest of the social sciences. It is one of the youngest sciences because only recently it came to be established as a distinct branch of knowledge with its own distinct set of concepts and its own methods of inquiry. Sociology is also one of the oldest of the sciences. Since the dawn of civilization, society has been as a subject for speculation and inquiry along with other phenomena which have agitated…

    • 1656 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    sociology

    • 781 Words
    • 4 Pages

    studies • Environment • History • Human geography • International relations • Internet • Law • Linguistics • Media • Politics • Psychology • Social psychology • Social work • Sociology Essay on Relationship Between Sociology and Education Essay on Relationship Between Sociology and Education – Sociology and Education, as two branches of knowledge, concerned essentially with man and his life, are intimately refuted. Education has come to be one of the basic activities of human societ¬ies…

    • 781 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Sociology

    • 4385 Words
    • 18 Pages

    SW1C1 -SOCIOLOGY AND ECONOMICS FOR SOCIAL WORK Module 1 Introduction to Sociology 1.1 Introduction In the family of social sciences, Sociology is comparatively a new entrant. But because of its dealing with social problems, social relationships and social interactions the importance of the study of this subject has considerably increased. It has considerably developed in methodology, scope and approach. Sociology is the systematic study of social behavior and human groups. It focuses primarily…

    • 4385 Words
    • 18 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Sociology

    • 3695 Words
    • 15 Pages

    DEFINITION Sociology is the scientific study of human society and its origins, development, organizations, and institutions. Sociology can be considered a science as it involves systematic methods of empirical research, analysis of data and the assessment of theories. In addition, it asks questions which can be quantified. Sociology is a discipline that expands our awareness and analysis of the human social relationships, cultures, and institutions that profoundly shape both our lives and…

    • 3695 Words
    • 15 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Sociology

    • 1369 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Sociology Sociology is the scientific study of human social life either in groups or societies – known sometimes as the study of social interplays. It is a relatively new academic trend developed earlier in the 19th century and focuses the social rules and processes that affect the relationships between individuals, organizations and individuals. Sociology is interested in our behavior and ranges in its spheres from the analysis of the short communications between the individuals in street…

    • 1369 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Sociology

    • 1111 Words
    • 5 Pages

    8 reasons for regarding sociology as a Science It is true that a scientific study of social phenomena is not free from difficulties. Study of society by their very nature cannot be exact like natural and physical sciences. But it is not correct to say that there is no possibility of sociology becoming a science. It is true that a scientific study of social phenomena is not free from difficulties. Study of society by their very nature cannot be exact like natural and physical sciences. But it…

    • 1111 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Sociology

    • 1832 Words
    • 8 Pages

    ------------------------------------------------- Types of Sociology Not all universities approach sociology the same way, and the new science evolved differently depending on where it was taught and who was teaching it. The two major types of sociology that emerged were qualitative sociologyand quantitative sociology. Today, most universities use both qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry, and one method is not necessarily better than the other. Qualitative Sociology At the University of Chicago, Albion…

    • 1832 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Sociology

    • 2635 Words
    • 11 Pages

    What is Sociology Sociology is the ordered, logical study of human society and its origins, development, organizations, and institutions. It is a social science which uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about human social activity, structures, and functions. A goal for many sociologists is to conduct research which may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, while others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding…

    • 2635 Words
    • 11 Pages
    Good Essays