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By theabonana Jul 09, 2013 1411 Words
Jelthea L. Caleja
BPA 1-2
Sosyolohiya, Kultura at Pagpapamilya W 1:30-4:30

What is Sociology?
Sociology is the study of human social relationships and institutions. Sociology’s subject matter is diverse, ranging from crime to religion, from the family to the state, from the divisions of race and social class to the shared beliefs of a common culture, and from social stability to radical change in whole societies. Unifying the study of these diverse subjects of study issociology's purpose of understanding how human action and consciousness both shape and are shaped by surrounding cultural and social structures. Sociology is an exciting and illuminating field of study that analyzes and explains important matters in our personal lives, our communities, and the world. Ang sosyolohiya ay ang pag-aaral ng mga alituntunin ng lipunan at mga proseso na binibigkis at hinihiwalay ang mga tao di lamang bilang mga indibiduwal kundi bilang kasapi ng mga asosasyon, grupo, at institusyon.sosyolohiya – ang agham ng lipunan; ang makaagham na pag-aaral ng mga grupo at lipunang binuo at kinabibilangan ng mga tao at kung paaano ito nakaaapekto sa pag-iisip ng sangkatauhang kabilang sa lipunan.Sa sosyolohiya, tinitingnan natin ang sariling problema na kaugnay o bunga ng iba pang mga pangyayari sa lipunan.

What is Sociology as a science?
Sociology is a science every bit as much as biology or chemistry. Social sciences, like natural and biological sciences, use a vigorous methodology. This means that a social scientist clearly states the problems he or she is interested in and clearly spells out how he or she arrives at their conclusions. Generally, social scientists ground the procedure in a body of existing literature. This is precisely how other sciences function.

What is Sociology as a discipline?
The groups within which we spend our lives—in our families, schools, communities, workplaces, and societies—help to define us in the eyes of others, while defining us to ourselves as well. Sociologists possess a quality of mind that helps them to use scientific knowledge and logical reasoning in order to develop understandings of what is going on in the world. Sociology is a discipline that makes it possible to see how individual experiences—how we act, think, feel, and remember—are connected to the wider society. To understand human experience better, we must understand all that we can about groups and social relationships. Sociologists examine the shared meanings that humans attach to their interactions with one another, and they study human experience as it unfolds within societies over time. They study social patterns that are stable and also those that are changing.

What are the areas of Sociology?
Sociology is a very broad and diverse field. There are many different topics and scopes in the field of sociology, some of which are relatively new. The following are some of the major areas of research and application within the field of sociology. Family. The sociology of family examines things such as marriage, divorce, child rearing, and domestic abuse. Specifically, sociologists study how these aspects of the family are defined in different cultures and times and how they affect individuals and institutions. Deviance And Crime. These sociologists, also called criminologists, examine cultural norms, how they change over time, how they are enforced, and what happens to individuals and societies when norms are broken. Deviance and social norms vary among societies, communities, and times, and often sociologists are interested in why these differences exist and how these differences impact the individuals and groups in those areas.

Demography. Demography refers to a population's composition. Some of the basic concepts explored in demography include birth rate, fertility rate, death rate, infant mortality rate, and migration. Demographers are interested in how and why these demographics vary between societies, groups, and communities. Social Inequality. The study of social inequality examines the unequal distribution of power, privilege, and prestige in society. These sociologists study differences and inequalities in social class, race, and gender. Health And Illness. Sociologists who study health and illness focus on the social effects of, and societal attitudes towards, illnesses, diseases, disabilities, and the aging process. This is not to be confused with medical sociology, which focuses on medical institutions such as hospitals, clinics, and physician offices as well as the interactions among physicians. Work And Industry. The sociology of work concerns the implications of technological change, globalization, labor markets, work organization, managerial practices, and employment relations. These sociologists are interested in workforce trends and how they relate to the changing patterns of inequality in modern societies as well as how they affect the experiences of individuals and families. Race And Ethnicity. The sociology of race and ethnicity examines the social, political, and economic relations between races and ethnicities at all levels of society. Topics commonly studied include racism, residential segregation, and the differences in social processes between racial and ethnic groups. Military. Military sociology looks at the military as a social group rather than an organization and examines issues related to coerced collective action, survival in vocation and combat, civilian-military relations, and interactions between other groups or government agencies. Education. The sociology of education is the study of how educational institutions determine social structures and experiences. In particular, sociologists might look at how different aspects of educational institutions (teacher attitudes, peer influence, school climate, school resources, etc.) affect learning and other outcomes. Religion. The sociology of religion concerns the practice, history, development, and roles of religion in society. These sociologists examine religious trends over time, how various religions affect social interactions both within the religion and outside of it, and relations within religious institutions. The Internet. Sociology of the Internet includes the analysis of online communities (newsgroups, social networking sites, etc.) and virtual worlds. Sociologists are interested in the social implications of the Internet and how virtual communities and worlds are transforming real communities and societies across the globe.

Why should we study sociology?
To acknowledge yourself of the nature of people around you. To better understand why certain people act the way they do and also because it's interesting learning about the various cultural ideas and ideals To be able to connect our personal problems and issues with the wider social structures and cultural values,  the ways these have developed historically and the current changes and contradictions that effect society in general and the tensions we experience us in our day to day lives.

Who are the proponents of sociology?
Auguste Comte was the first to develop the concept of "sociology." He defined sociology as a positive science. Positivism is the search for "invariant laws of the natural and social world." Comte identified three basic methods for discovering these invariant laws, observation, experimentation, and comparison. He is also famous for his Law of the Three Stages. These three stages are the theological, metaphysical, and positivist. Comte discussed the difference between social statistics and social dynamics; which have been renamed social structure and social change. Comte’s ideas have had a major role in developing structural functionalism. His major goal was to integrate theory and practice. Herbert Spencer traced the development of human life/organ from its lowest recognizable form up to human beings. He further says that as mind controls entire body and organs, same way the society (through its rules), controls all organs /parts. Therefore society /collectivity has power to control . Karl Marx His theories about society, economics and politics, which are collectively known as Marxism, hold that all societies progress through the dialectic of class struggle. He was heavily critical of the current socio-economic form of society, capitalism,Under socialism, he argued that society would be governed by the working class in what he called the "dictatorship of the proletariat", the "workers state" or "workers' democracy".] He believed that socialism would, in its turn, eventually be replaced by a stateless, classless society called pure communism. Along with believing in the inevitability of socialism and communism, Marx actively fought for the former's implementation, arguing that both social theorists and underprivileged people should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about socio-economic change. Max Weber He illustrated how social institutions are dependent on each other. In his major work, he showed that when a change occurred in the religious institution during the sixteenth century, it contributed to a change in the economic institution. Previously, most people thought of religion and economics being autonomous and completely separated from each other.

The relationship of Sociology in other sciences

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