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Sociology

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Sociology

Sociology is the scientific study of human social life either in groups or societies – known sometimes as the study of social interplays. It is a relatively new academic trend developed earlier in the 19th century and focuses the social rules and processes that affect the relationships between individuals, organizations and individuals.
Sociology is interested in our behavior and ranges in its spheres from the analysis of the short communications between the individuals in street to the study of the world social processes. Generally, sociology is considered the scientific study of social groups and structures through human mobility in all of their life spheres. The current goal of many sociologists is to make the sociology applied for those persons who want to work in practical field. The results of the social research help the academics, educators, lawmakers, administrators, politicians and other persons interested in resolving social issues in general and draft proper social policies.
The traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social classes, culture, education, ethnicity, family, social psychology, political sociology, urban and rural sociology, sexuality, social mobility, religion, criminality, and demography.

Origin:
Sociology is a new academic trend among other sciences like economics, politics, humanities, and psychology; however, it has ancient origins that could be traced back through the mixture of human knowledge and philosophy.
Sociology quickly evolved earlier in the 19th century as an academic response to the perceived challenges of modernity such as industrialization, urbanization, secularization, and the process of "rationalization".

Ibn Khaldun 1332- 1406
Abu-Zeid Abdul-Rahman bin Muhammed bin Khaldun (27 May 1332 - 19 March 1406) was an Arab Muslim historiographer and historian, and one of the founding fathers of modern sociology. Generally, he was known as "Ibn Khaldūn"; he was born in Tunis into an upper-class Andalusian family of Arab descent.

Auguste Comte
Auguste Comte was the first founder of the discipline of sociology in 1838. He wished to unify all human studies including history, psychology and economics. His ideal social plan dated back to the 19th century when he thought that all human life patterns of all peoples passed through the same distinguished historical phases, so if anyone could realize the phases of this development, he will resolve the social issues.
The first book in sociology held the same title and was written mid-nineteenth by the English Philosopher Herbert Spencer. This major was taught for the first time in the University of Kansas, Lawrence, USA, in 1980. The first Sociology Section in USA was set up in The University of Chicago in 1892 by Albion W.
The first sociology section in Europe was set up in the University of Bordeaux in 1895 by Emile Durkheim. In 1919, the sociology section was set up in Germany by Max Weber and in 1920 in Poland by Florian Zenanicki. The first Sociology section in the United Kingdom was set up after the 2nd World War. In 1905, the US Social Society, the big sociologists society in the world, was set up and include a list of theoretical sociologists from the 20th and 19th centuries like Karl Marx, and Ferdinand Tönnies.

Except Marx, they created major impact in sociology. On the other hand, the studies conducted by Marx were considered a field similar to natural sciences like physics and biology. What makes sociology distinguished than theology, philosophy or metaphysics is the usage of scientific method that led sociology to be accredited as an empirical science.
Bt the 19th century, natural-trend of studies of the social life were placed in a doubt point by a number of sociologists like Delti and Rekert who argued that the natural world differs from the social world while the human society is characterized by unique features like morals, and concepts which help to create human cultures. This point of view was developed by Max Fieber to be against the realistic philosophy. According to this point of view, the studies should focus on people and their cultural concepts, so disputes on the possibility of how to put a bar between the personal and objective research that affected as a result on the illustrative studies.
A group of people who constituted the discipline that forms a network of relationships among people. The simple definition of society goes to a group of people living together in a regular community; the study of sociologies is based on societies.
Sociologists instruct society and social behavior by examining the social groups and institutions created by the human-being, in addition to the politics, religion, and organizations. They also instruct the social interaction between the groups, that traces back their origin and analyses the impact of activities of the groups' individuals.
Sociologists are very interested in the social features of groups, organizations and institutions like gender, age and daily life-routine and how the individuals get affected by each other and by the groups to which they are affiliated.
Social research informs politicians, policy makers, educators, planners, lawmakers, administrators, developers, business managers, social workers, non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, and people interested in resolving social issues in general. The sociologists operate in one or more of these social organizations: social groups, social stratification, social mobility, bureaucracy, ethnic groups and relations, and other similar subjects like family, education, politics, religion, economy, and so on and so forth.

Basic concepts in sociology:

SOCIETY
The society is a group of people involved with each other through persistent relations, or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or social territory, subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

Society components
1- Limited land
2- population
3- Historic relationships
4- Low-rate autarky

CLASSIFICATIONS OF SOCIETIES * Bi-classification (urban – rural / industrial – agricultural). * Advanced classification: (communist – capitalist – feudal – primeval – servitude). * Comparison classification (based on the population-related indicators in various societies).

Culture
Culture has a narrow meaning if it is relates to either thinking, arts, or literature and a comprehensive meaning if it is related to the lifestyles the man acquires as one of the society members or the culture is a the society heritage of customs and traditions. There are two types of culture; material culture and moral culture. The material culture is all what we can touch like clothes, and tools while the moral culture is all what belong to the customs and traditions. There are also general culture and sub-culture; the general one is what all people share while the sub one is special for a particular group like men or women.

Culture features * General: for all the society individuals. * Acquired by learning or practices. * Symbolic, depending on the language. * Abstraction.

Social structure
The stable relationships in which the individual shares within the family of the social structure require understanding the following: * The position the individual is occupying in frame of the social structure. * The role (behavior) played by the individual to reach to that position.

Social system
The regulated social roles in the social life fields limited by certain social standards like the family, work, and worship.

Social processes

A group of changes and interactions resulting to a repeated pattern of behavior which helps the society to be in a condition of continuous change; it means that the social processes point out to the society transition from a status to another; for example from rural society to urban society and from agricultural society to industrial one.

Social system
The interactive elements; each of which achieves a function in the general frame of the system. The social system constitutes a unit within in the total structure and we can call each unit of the behavior units as system if it meets these conditions: * Elements. * Clear functions. * Interaction. * A good outside environment in which the system may coexists and plays its functions.

Some terms that help to understand

* Social action: a behavioral practice to achieve a particular goal. * Sender and recipient: the sender who conducts the behavior and the recipient who receives that behavior. * Social attitude: the social frame that includes a litany of interactions related to a particular issue. * Social relationships: there are two types of the social relationships; temporary like the gathering of passengers in a bus or the students in a classroom and permanent like family and work.

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