Sociology is the scientific study of human social life either in groups or societies – known sometimes as the study of social interplays. It is a relatively new academic trend developed earlier in the 19th century and focuses the social rules and processes that affect the relationships between individuals, organizations and individuals. Sociology is interested in our behavior and ranges in its spheres from the analysis of the short communications between the individuals in street to the study of the world social processes. Generally, sociology is considered the scientific study of social groups and structures through human mobility in all of their life spheres. The current goal of many sociologists is to make the sociology applied for those persons who want to work in practical field.
The results of the social research help the academics, educators, lawmakers, administrators, politicians and other persons interested in resolving social issues in general and draft proper social policies. The traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social classes, culture, education, ethnicity, family, social psychology, political sociology, urban and rural sociology, sexuality, social mobility, religion, criminality, and demography.
Sociology is a new academic trend among other sciences like economics, politics, humanities, and psychology; however, it has ancient origins that could be traced back through the mixture of human knowledge and philosophy. Sociology quickly evolved earlier in the 19th century as an academic response to the perceived challenges of modernity such as industrialization, urbanization, secularization, and the process of "rationalization".
Ibn Khaldun 1332- 1406
Abu-Zeid Abdul-Rahman bin Muhammed bin Khaldun (27 May 1332 - 19 March 1406) was an Arab Muslim historiographer and historian, and one of the founding fathers of modern sociology. Generally, he was known as "Ibn Khaldūn"; he was born in Tunis into an upper-class Andalusian family of Arab descent.
Auguste Comte was the first founder of the discipline of sociology in 1838. He wished to unify all human studies including history, psychology and economics. His ideal social plan dated back to the 19th century when he thought that all human life patterns of all peoples passed through the same distinguished historical phases, so if anyone could realize the phases of this development, he will resolve the social issues. The first book in sociology held the same title and was written mid-nineteenth by the English Philosopher Herbert Spencer. This major was taught for the first time in the University of Kansas, Lawrence, USA, in 1980. The first Sociology Section in USA was set up in The University of Chicago in 1892 by Albion W. The first sociology section in Europe was set up in the University of Bordeaux in 1895 by Emile Durkheim. In 1919, the sociology section was set up in Germany by Max Weber and in 1920 in Poland by Florian Zenanicki. The first Sociology section in the United Kingdom was set up after the 2nd World War. In 1905, the US Social Society, the big sociologists society in the world, was set up and include a list of theoretical sociologists from the 20th and 19th centuries like Karl Marx, and Ferdinand Tönnies.
Except Marx, they created major impact in sociology. On the other hand, the studies conducted by Marx were considered a field similar to natural sciences like physics and biology. What makes sociology distinguished than theology, philosophy or metaphysics is the usage of scientific method that led sociology to be accredited as an empirical science. Bt the 19th century, natural-trend of studies of the social life were placed in a doubt point by a number of sociologists like Delti and Rekert who argued that the natural world differs from the social world while the human society is characterized by unique features like morals, and concepts which help to...
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