Chapter 11 Sex and Gender
Sex: refers to the biological and anatomical differences between men and women. Primary sex characteristics: genitalia used for reproduction. Secondary sex characteristics: boobs, hips, deep voice, facial hair. Hermaphrodite: a person in whom sexual differentiation is ambiguous or incomplete. Transsexual: a person who believes that they were born the wrong sex. Transvestite: male who lives as women or vice versa but does not alter their genitalia. Sexual orientation: refers to an individual’s preference for emotional-sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex, same sex, or both. Gender: the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with femininity and masculinity. Gender role: refers to the attitudes, behaviour and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process. Gender identity: a person’s perception of the self as female or male. Body consciousness is how a person perceives and feels about his or her body, it also includes an awareness of social conditioning in a society that contributes to the self knowledge. Sexism is the subordination of one sex, usually female based on the assumed superiority of the other sex. Patriarchy – males rule
Matriarchy – women rule
Gender bias consists of showing favouritism toward one gender over the other. Sexual harassment is unwanted sexual advances, requests for sexual favours or other verbal of physical conduct of a sexual nature. Wage gap: a term used to describe the disparity between womens and mens earnings. Pay equity or comparable worth is the belief that wages ought to reflect the worth of a job, not the gender or race of the worker. Employment equity: a strategy to eliminate the effects of discrimination and to fully open the competition for job opportunities to those who have been excluded historically. Feminism: the belief that women and men are equal and that they should be valued equally and have equal rights. Functionalist – instrumental and expressive tasks – division of labour by gender ensures stability. Neoclassical economic – human capital – genders inequity in the labour market results from womens diminished human capital. Conflict – gendered division of labour – the gendered division of labour at home and work is the result of male control of women and resources. Liberal feminism – equal rights – womens equality is equated with equality of opportunity. Socialist feminism – gendered job segregation – capitalism must be eliminated and a socialist economy established to obtain gender equality. Radical feminism – patriarchy – patriarchy must be abolished for gender equality to be achieved. Multicultural feminism: double or triple jeopardy – race, class and gender oppress women. Post-modernist feminism- deconstructing gender – categories of male and female and man and women are artificial and malleable. People create, modify and maintain their gender though every day interactions. Symbolic interactions – doing gender – individuals create, maintain and modify their gender through every day interactions. Chapter 12 Aging
Chronological age – a person’s age based on their date of birth Functional age – observable individual attributes, such as physical appearance, mobility, strength and coordination that are used to assign people to age categories. Life expectancy is the average length of time a group of individuals of the same age will live. Cohort – a group of people born within a specific period of time. Gerontology is the study of aging and older people.
Social gerontology is the study of the social aspects of aging. Age stratification is the inequalities, differences, segregation or conflict between age groups. Ageism – prejudice and discrimination against people on the basis of age, particularly when they are older people. Elder abuse- refers to physical, mental,...
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