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Sociology

By tygd1202530 Feb 01, 2013 1949 Words
1. Sociology: The study of human social behavior, especially the study of the origins, organization, institutions, and development of human society. Analysis of a social institution or societal segment as a self-contained entity or in relation to society as a whole. 2. Thomas theorem: If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences(In other words, the interpretation of a situation causes the action. This interpretation is not objective. Actions are affected by subjective perceptions of situations. Whether there even is an objectively correct interpretation is not important for the purposes of helping guide individuals' behavior.) 3. natural science : A branch of science that deals with the physical world, e.g., physics, chemistry, geology, and biology. The branch of knowledge that deals with the study of the physical world. 4. industrial revolution:The rapid development of industry in Britain in the late 18th and 19th centuries, brought about by the introduction of machinery. 5. Law of three stages: s an idea developed by Auguste Comte. It states that society as a whole, and each particular science, develops through three mentally conceived stages: (1) the theological stage, (2) the metaphysical stage, and (3) the positive stage. 6. Mechanical Solidarity and Organic Solidarity refer to the concepts of solidarity as developed by Émile Durkheim. They are used in the context of differentiating between mechanical and organic societies. In a society exhibiting mechanical solidarity, its cohesion and integration comes from the homogeneity of individuals—people feel connected through similar work, educational and religious training, and lifestyle. Mechanical solidarity normally operates in "traditional" and small scale societies.[1] In simpler societies (e.g., tribal), solidarity is usually based on kinship ties of familial networks. Organic solidarity comes from the interdependence that arises from specialization of work and the complementarities between people—a development which occurs in "modern" and "industrial" societies.[1] Definition: it is social cohesion based upon the dependence individuals have on each other in more advanced societies 7. Collective consciousness or collective conscience (French conscience collective) is the set of shared beliefs and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within society.[1] The term was introduced by the French sociologist Émile Durkheim in his Division of Labour in Society in 1893. 8. social facts are the values, cultural norms, and social structures which transcend the individual and are capable of exercising a social constraint. French sociologist Émile Durkheim, who put the term into broad circulation, states that in the study of society, "The first and fundamental rule is to consider social facts as things."[1] These "things" form the distinctive subject matter of sociology. 9. Sui generis is an adjective borrowed from Latin, meaning "of its own kind/genus" or "unique in its characteristics".[2] The term is widely needed to support the more esoteric requirements of a number of disciplines, including philosophy, when a concept is not available; in biology when a genus is not available; in law when a special and unique interpretation of a case or authority will be needed on the fly; in town-planning where there is no existing use case; in intellectual property rights where there is no defining characteristic; and in politics and societal norms where there is no real authority perceived. 10. Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft (generally translated as "community" and "society") are sociological categories introduced by the German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies for two normal types of human association. (A normal type, as coined by Tönnies, is a purely conceptual tool to be built up logically, whereas an ideal type, as coined by Max Weber, is a concept formed by accentuating main elements of a historic/social change.) Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft sparked a major revival of corporatist thinking including sparking the rise of Neo-medievalism, rise of support for guild socialism, and caused major changes in the field of sociology.[1] Gemeinschaft (often translated as community) is an association in which individuals are oriented to the large association as much as, if not more than, to their own self-interest. Furthermore, individuals in gemeinschaft are regulated by common mores, or beliefs about the appropriate behavior and responsibility of members of the association, to each other and to the association at large; associations are marked by "unity of will" (Tönnies, 22). In contrast, gesellschaft (often translated as society, civil society or association) describes associations in which, for the individual, the larger association never takes precedence over the individual's self-interest, and these associations lack the same level of shared mores. 11. Definition of 'Rational Behavior'A decision-making process that is based on making choices that result in the most optimal level of benefit or utility for the individual. Most conventional economic theories are created and used under the assumption that all individuals taking part in an action/activity are behaving rationally.  12. In sociology, rationalization refers to the replacement of traditions, values, and emotions as motivators for behavior in society with rational, calculated ones. For example, the implementation of bureaucracies in government is a kind of rationalization, as is the construction of high-efficiency living spaces in architecture and urban planning. 13. The proletariat from Latin proletarius, a citizen of the lowest class) is a term used to identify a lower social class, usually the working class; a member of such a class is proletarian. Originally it was identified as those people who had no wealth other than their children. 14. Bourgeoisie is a word from the French language, used in the fields of political economy, political philosophy, sociology, and history, which originally denoted the wealthy stratum of the middle class that originated during the latter part of the Middle Ages (AD 500–1500).[1][2] The utilisation and specific application of the word is from the realm of the social sciences. In sociology and in political science, the noun bourgeoisie and the adjective bourgeois are terms that describe a historical range of socio-economic classes.  15. Means of production refers to physical, non-human inputs used in production—the factories, machines, and tools used to produce wealth[1] — along with both infrastructural capital and natural capital. This includes the classical factors of production minus financial capital and minus human capital. They include two broad categories of objects: instruments of labour (tools, factories, infrastructure, etc.) and subjects of labour (natural resources and raw materials). People operate on the subjects of labour, using the instruments of labour, to create a product; or, stated another way, labour acting on the means of production creates a product.[2] When used in the broad sense, the "means of production" includes the "means of distribution" which includes stores, banks, and railroads.[3] 16. survival of the fittest:Natural selection conceived of as a struggle for life in which only those organisms best adapted to existing conditions are able to survive and reproduce. 17. Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes "the moral worth of the individual".[1][2] Individualists promote the exercise of one's goals and desires and so value independence and self-reliance[3] while opposing external interference upon one's own interests by society or institutions such as the government.[3] 18. Mills defined sociological imagination as "the vivid awareness of the relationship between experience and the wider society." It is the ability to see things socially and how they interact and influence each other. To have a sociological imagination, a person must be able to pull away from the situation and think from an alternative point of view. Read more about sociological imagination and the book with the same title. The sociological imagination is the of individuals. It includes both the capacity to see relationships between individual biographies... 19. Institutional racism describes any kind of system of inequality based on race. It can occur in institutions such as public government bodies, private business corporations (such as media outlets), and universities (public and private). The term was introduced by Black Power activists Stokely Carmichael and Charles V. Hamilton in the late 1960s.[1] The definition given by William Macpherson within the report looking into the death of Stephen Lawrence was “the collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people

A literature review: is a text written by someone to consider the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. Also, a literature review can be interpreted as a review of an abstract accomplishment. Sociological survey :Research on social questions or problems, especially focusing on cultural and environmental factors. Self-Administered Questionnaire (SAQ): questionnaires that are executed without an interviewer. Matrix question: Series of two or more closed questions in which each respondent’s answers are recorded using the same grid. Demographics :are statistical characteristics[vague] of a population. These types of data are used widely in public opinion polling and marketing. Commonly examined demographics include gender, age, ethnicity, knowledge of languages, disabilities, mobility, home ownership, employment status, and even location. Demographic trends describe the historical changes in demographics in a population over time (for example, the average age of a population may increase or decrease over time). Both distributions and trends of values within a demographic variable are of interest. Demographics are very essential about the population of a region and the culture of the people there. EXPERIMENT: A research method in which variables can be analyzed under carefully controlled conditions--usually within an artificial situation constructed by the researcher. Control group: Subjects in an experiment who are not introduced to the independent variable by the researcher. Field research or fieldwork: is the collection of information outside of a laboratory, library or workplace setting. The approaches and methods used in field research vary across disciplines. Observational research (or field research); is a social research technique that involves the direct observation of phenomena in their natural setting. This differentiates it from experimental research in which a quasi-artificial environment is created to control for spurious factors, and where at least one of the variables is manipulated as part of the experiment. Participant observation is one type of data collection method typically done in the qualitative research paradigm. It is a widely used methodology in many disciplines, particularly cultural anthropology, less so in sociology, communication studies, and social psychology. Its aim is to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, sub cultural group, or a particular community) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their cultural environment, usually over an extended period of time. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology in the social sciences for studying the content of communication Social artifact is any product of individuals or groups (social beings) or of their social behavior. SAMPLING: Taking a small representative part of a population for purposes of drawing inferences from the analysis of the sample characteristics to the population as a whole. Convenience Sampling:It is a sampling method in which units are selected based on easy access/availability. The disadvantage of convenience sampling is that the units that are easiest to obtain may not be representative of the population. For example products on top of a box of parts may be a different quality from those at the bottom, people who are at home when the market researcher calls may not be representative of the entire population. It is also called as Accidental Sampling. Random sample: A sampling method in which all members of a group (population or universe) have an equal and independent chance of being selected.

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