What is sociology?
not isolated from all other disciplines (overlaps with history, philosophy, etc) A study of all aspects of the human condition
There is nothing that human beings do or say that is foreign to sociologists Sociological thinking - didn't begin with Comte, but with human beings in the earliest stages of history (even the paleolithic period!) because we encountered situations where we had to solve problems (e.g. relationships, cooperation, conflict) Human beings were always addressing sociological problems, questions and issues - as old as history Pre-socratics (thinkers before Socrates)
Socrates - taught Plato, who taught Aristotle, who taught Alexandre the Great Pre-socratics: Heraclitus, Cratylus
Heraclitus - the most important pre-socratic thinker, in some ways, because he said two astounding things - 'one can never step into the same river twice' what is the interpretation?
everything changes - can't relive the same situations once you live through the experience - a constant flux, nothing is static, everything is changing at all times If this is true, then the word 'process' becomes important - don't study things as objects, but as a processes when we discuss human beings, we must realize the importance of history history - the only way to see how things have changed over time (can't study realistically ahistorically) Heraclitus had a disciple - Cratylus
Cratylus says, "one cannot step into the same river even once!" What does this mean?
Because everything changes at all times, there is no 'present', its not a reality! It's a process, still flowing, and there is no such thing, for all practical purposes, we act as if there is such as thing as the 'present', but the reality is, everything is in flux and there is no reality of a 'present tense' Theory, in the sciences (which is somehow put on a pedestal), what is it? Goes back to Einstein - his theory of relativity
he found that it was impossible to measure, or to learn,...
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