Socio-Economic Issues in India

Topics: India, Poverty threshold, Religious violence in India Pages: 18 (5258 words) Published: June 2, 2011
Socio-economic issues in India
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Since India's Independence in 1947, country has faced several social and economic issues.Contents 1 Overpopulation
2 Economic issues
2.1 Poverty
2.2 Corruption
3 Education
3.1 Initiatives
3.2 Issues
4 Violence
4.1 Religious violence
4.2 Terrorism
4.3 Naxalism
4.4 Caste related violence
5 See also
6 References

Further information: Family planning in India and Demographics of India

India suffers from the problem of overpopulation.[1][2][3] Though India ranks second in population, it ranks 33 in terms of population density below countries such as The Netherlands, South Korea and Japan. To cure this problem, Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India, had implemented a forced sterilization programme in the early 1970s but failed. Officially, men with two children or more had to submit to sterilization, but many unmarried young men, political opponents and ignorant, poor men were also believed to have been sterilized. This program is still remembered and criticized in India, and is blamed for creating a wrong public aversion to family planning, which hampered Government programmes for decades.[4] [edit]

Economic issues

Percent of population living under the poverty line

Extent of corruption in Indian states, as measured in a 2005 study by Transparency International India. (Darker regions are more corrupt)[5] Further information: Economy of India
Main article: Poverty in India

One-third of India's population (roughly equivalent to the entire population of the United States) lives below the poverty line and India is home to one-third of the world's poor people.

Though the middle class has gained from recent positive economic developments, India suffers from substantial poverty. According to the new World Bank's estimates on poverty based on 2005 data, India has 456 million people, 41.6% of its population, living below the new international poverty line of $1.25 (PPP) per day. The World Bank further estimates that 33% of the global poor now reside in India. Moreover, India also has 828 million people, or 75.6% of the population living below $2 a day, compared to 72.2% for Sub-Saharan Africa.[6][7][8][9]

Wealth distribution in India is fairly uneven, with the top 10% of income groups earning 33% of the income.[10] Despite significant economic progress, 1/4 of the nation's population earns less than the government-specified poverty threshold of $0.40/day. Official figures estimate that 27.5%[11] of Indians lived below the national poverty line in 2004–2005.[12] A 2007 report by the state-run National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector (NCEUS) found that 25% of Indians, or 236 million people, lived on less than 20 rupees per day[13] with most working in "informal labour sector with no job or social security, living in abject poverty."[14] [edit]

Main article: Corruption in India

Corruption is widespread in India. India is ranked 72 out of a 179 countries in Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index, although its score has improved consistently from 2.7 in 2002 to 3.5 in 2007.[15] Corruption has taken the role of a pervasive aspect of Indian politics and bureaucracy.[16]

In India, corruption takes the form of bribes, evasion of tax and exchange controls, embezzlement, etc. A 2005 study done by Transparency International (TI) India found that more than 50% had firsthand experience of paying bribe or peddling influence to get a job done in a public office.[5] The chief economic consequences of corruption are the loss to the exchequer, an unhealthy climate for investment and an increase in the cost of government-subsidised services. The TI India study estimates the monetary value of petty corruption in 11 basic services provided by the government, like education, healthcare, judiciary, police, etc., to be around Rs.21,068 crores.[5]...

References: ^ "Over-population warning as India 's billionth baby is born". The Guardian (London). 2000-05-11. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
^ a b c Centre for Media Studies (2005), India Corruption Study 2005: To Improve Governance Volume – I: Key Highlights, Transparency International India.
^ "One-third of world 's poor in India: Survey". The Times Of India. 2008-08-27.
^ "World Bank 's new poverty norms find larger number of poor in India". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 2008-08-28.
^ Schifferes, Steve (2008-08-27). "World poverty 'more widespread '". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
^ Ludden 1996, p. 253
^ Barbara Harriss-White (2003), India Working: Essays on Society and Economy, Cambridge University Press, p
^ a b Ram Puniyani (2003), Communal Politics: Facts Versus Myths, SAGE, pp. 174, ISBN 0-7619-9667-2
^ Basu, Tapan Kumar (1993), Khaki shorts and saffron flags: a critique of the Hindu right, [New Delhi]: Orient Longman, pp
^ Hindu Extremists Attack Indian Churches, Torch Home of Prominent Christian
^ Paul Brass, The Production of Hindu-Muslim Violence in Contemporary India, University of Washington Press, 2003: p 1144.
^ Bhatt, Chetan. "Majority ethnic" claims and authoritarian nationalism", in Eric Kaufman (ed.) Rethinking Ethnicity: Majority Groups and Dominant Minorities, Routledge, 2004.
^ International Religious Freedom Report 2007:India
^ Fritz Blackwell (2004), India: A Global Studies Handbook, ABC-CLIO, p
^ Ashis Nandy (1991-02-18), Hinduism Versus Hindutva: The Inevitability Of A Confrontation, The Times of India, retrieved 2008-11-10
^ Kashmiri Pandits in Nandimarg decide to leave Valley, Outlook, 30 March 2003, retrieved 2007-11-30
^ Phil Reeves (25 March 2003), Islamic militants kill 24 Hindus in Kashmir massacre, The Independent, retrieved 2007-11-30
^ Anti-Christian Violence on the Rise in India
^ Low, Alaine M.; Brown, Judith M.; Frykenberg, Robert Eric (eds.) (2002), Christians, Cultural Interactions, and India 's Religious Traditions, Grand Rapids, Mich: W.B. Eerdmans, pp. 134, ISBN 0-7007-1601-7
^ Subba, Tanka Bahadur; Som, Sujit; Baral, K
^ Ram Puniyani (2003), Communal Politics: Facts Versus Myths, SAGE, p. 167, ISBN 0-7619-9667-2
^ "150-yr-old church set afire in Madhya Pradesh"
^ Diwanji, A. K. (2003-10-02), Primer: Who are the Naxalites?,, retrieved 2007-03-15
^ Bhattacharya, Amit
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