TOU2002 – Tourism Impacts and Sustainability
Topic: Socio-Cultural impacts of tourism
Tourism considered as global phenomenon which is carried out by persons itself. This naturally results in meeting of different culture, economy, progress, status, etc. round the globe. Human being considered as social animal cause’s significant social culture impact by tourism. According to Teo (1994) impacts are defined as “change in value system, moral, conduct, individual behaviour, relationship, lifestyle, expression, tradition”. Social culture impact of tourism discussed below is categorised broadly as positive and negative impact of tourism, factors responsible and impact management utilising various supportive journals articles. Interaction between host and tourist at particular destination leads to social culture impacts. This could have immediate social impact like change in quality of life, adjustment to tourist industry and long term culture impact like change in standards, social relationship defined as “conducting elements of behaviour and product of that behaviour” (Weidenfeld, 2012). Broadly literatures revels positive impacts like urban relocation by creating jobs, infrastructure, security, foster pride in culture, etc. certain negative impacts like increase in crime, environmental detonation, increase traffic, alcoholism, drugs, prostitution etc. However, the impacts are considered ambiguous broadly varies country to country and hosts perceptions. Various pre studied articles are taken into consideration to have detailed inside story on various location with different aims and method. Social culture impacts of tourism causes different phenomenon like different adjustments by host community for adaptation, different level of impact on developed and third country nations, influence due to religious views, conflicts, perception during giant global game events are discussed in detailed. HOST ADJUSTMENT
Sociocultural impact leads to change in traditional values and believes on tourist destination. Dogan (1989) studied adjustment done by host community due to tourism. Study is focused on third world countries where tourism effects persons habit, belief, value, daily routine which puts mental pressure and leads to changes in form of adjustment. Four major segments where study concentrates are sociocultural consequences, strategies adopted to get adjusted , factors affecting the adjustment strategies and factors associated with strategies which develop homogenous society into heterogeneous. Above mentioned sociocultural consequences remain similar in study, furthermore adding loss of tradition, authenticity, materialism, commercialisation to it. Dependency on third world country on capitalist country was discussed due to tourism. It has been also referred another form of colonisation where wealth goes back to capitalist country as major tourism endeavours owned by western developed nations. Different adjustments by host community discussed as follows: Resistance- negative feeling towards tourist resulting conflicts, aggression and enmities as a result of saturation in tourism development. Retreatism- changes not approved by substantial portion of host population and they started avoiding contact with tourist, start preaching tradition strongly. Boundary maintenance- Due to economic growth because of tourism, resistance is not considered healthy for local growth specific boundary is created between host culture and tourist environment. Revitalization- Tourist becomes reason for saving traditional culture. Festivals, tradition, local goods attract tourists. Adaptation- Host community accept foreign tradition and gets moulded into their culture accepting it entirely. Minor Difference between host and tourist helps tourism development in pace. Factors leading to various adaptations were studied. Heterogeneity of local population, religious views, culture, and age difference within the...
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