ELL204/05 Society and Language
(A) Four Dimensions of Sociolinguistic by Holmes (2008)
Believe it or not? since the earth start until now, people talk , people communicate for transfer their information or convey their feeling to other . Languages play an important role in this process of transfer. Every day we speak, but sometime we will say the same thing in different way .What makes us use the different way to speak? In fact, these are some factor that will cause us to change our way to speak. For example we will do that when speak to the different dimensions people or different situation. There have four different dimensions in our social. These are
1) A social distance scale concerned with participant relationships. 2) A status scale concerned with participant relationships. 3) A formality scale relating to the setting or type of interaction. 4) Two functional scales relating the purposes or topic of interaction
The solidarity-social distance scale
Intimate ________________ Distant High solidarity Low solidarity
This scale is useful in emphasizing that how well we know someone is a relevant factor in linguistic choice. For example, if we speak in a high solidarity way to someone, that means that person we contact is more intimate or even closer. (e.g. family member, closer friend ) Conversely if we speak to a people that we not so familiar (distant) then the low solidarity occur.
The status scale
Superior _____________________ High status Subordinate Low status
This scale concerned with participants relationship, points to the relevance of relative status in some linguistic choice. For example we use ‘sir’ , ‘Mrs’ or ‘Mr’ in a polite way to speak with a higher status person to show the respect term. (e.g. student to teacher) . For the superior, normally they called these people by their first name to show his/her higher status .
The formality scale
Formal _______________________ High formality Informal Low formality
The formality scale relating to the setting or type of interaction, useful in assessing of the social setting or type interaction on language choice. In a formal transaction such as one with the bank manager in his office, or at a ritual service in church, the language used will be influenced by the formality of the setting. For a friendly chat, people generally use colloquial language to speak with other. For example, in Hemnesberget, Bokmol was the language of school and government offices. Ranamal was the language of the home. The written language of notices is often very formal and impersonal.
The referential and affective function scales
Referential High information content ------------------------------------------Low information content
Low affective content-------------------------------------------High affective content
At the start we know that the language is a bridge that we use to transfer our information and convey our feeling. This scale tell us the more referentially oriented an interaction is, the less it tends to express the feelings of the speaker. For example, Ray’s utterance yeah, that bastard sootbucket kept us in again simultaneously expresses both information about why he is late, while also conveying his feeling about the teacher referred to. Gossip may provide a great deal of new referential information, while also conveying how the speaker feels about those referred to.
In view of these different dimensions I strongly feel that...
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