Training & Development Creates Skilled & Knowledgeable Workforce: A Multi Level Case Study based on an Emerging Economy.
Today’s businesses are thriving for adapting with ongoing changes that require accumulating new knowledge and skills as a means of knowledge innovation; and transferring this knowledge to workplace by the fact of increasing skills for an effective and efficient workforce in order to remain competitive in market and to make sure the business sustainability. Training and development is recognized as such a tool that joints the concept of “Knowledge Management” and “Change Management” of an organization in a same point of argument for coping with recent faddy phenomenon. Its (Training & Development) ability to create knowledge and translate it into skill fosters an organizational performance. Therefore, investing in training and development ensures high return, theoretically. In contrary, the scenario of real world would be different as a lot of contextual factors involved in training and developing activities that cannot be judged properly without empirical evidence. By considering this fact, this project, however, attempts to emphasize the similarities and dissimilarities between the real practice of training and development and theoretical perspective of viewing training and development. New opportunities and limitations both have been found as a conclusion of data analysis. This paper employs a judgmental approach to multi level case study in demonstratating a broader perspective of viewing the role of training and development in creating skilled and knowledgeable workforce in an emerging economy.
Knowledge and skills of an organization’s workforce have become an increasingly important issue among the scholarly quire for their ability to foster organizational performances, competitiveness and innovation (Lawler, Mohrman & Ledford, 1998; Martocchio & Baldwin, 1997). Workplace learning and continuous improvements are now considered as indispensable factors for an organization to remain competitive (Salas & Cannon-Bowers, 2001). Among the all other resources, human resources are most vital one due to their intangible nature of knowledge, skill and attitude (Wright et al., 1994; Kamoche, 1996; Mueller, 1996; Barney and Wright, 1998; Bassi et al., 1998; Lee and Yang, 2000; Alavi and Leidner, 2001; Bollinger and Smith, 2001) and thus can generate competitive advantages that are not perfectly imitable. Thus, business’ long term profitability and optimum performance rely on the quality of employees; and training and development perform a key role in increasing the individual and organizational competences through a systematic approach of developing knowledge, skills and attitudes required by employees to meet the job requirements (Abiodun, 1999). According to Kraiger (2003), successful organizations are thought to invest more in training and development than other organizations due to the fact that training investments will lead to improve the organizational performance or results (Dolezalek, 2005; Salas & Cannon-Bowers, 2001). While training supports developing new skill and knowledge, it does not make sure the applicability of those skill and knowledge in workplace by alone. Baldwin and Ford (1988) conceptualized this phenomenon by the notion of “Transfer of Training” in maintaining and generalizing the skill and knowledge promoted by various learning indicators. They further considered individual, situational and contextual differences that may prevent or foster effective learning and transfer. Effective and efficient transfer of knowledge and skill from the training session to the workplace require valid transfer channel that can facilitate the optimal outcome. Otherwise, learning will not be translated into performance due to the deviation between self efficacies of trainees from the training session to workplace period. But most of the research conducted...
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