CHAPTER 4: Socialization
Socialization, in the course of our growth and development, is necessary for us to become the kind of people we aspire to be and to live the kind of lives we like.
We need a group in order to become ourselves. Our personality and mind are the products of our interaction with other people because the experience of becoming socialized is the same as the experience of becoming truly human.
Socialization is a life-long process of learning whereby the individual acquires the accepted beliefs values, sentiments, norms, and behavior of his/her group and society. It is through socialization that the individual becomes a functioning member of his/her group (Medina, 2001). *Socialization is actually two processes in one: 1.) the process of learning to be competent members of the society, and 2.) the process of developing oneself. Importance of socialization
Socialization is very important to an individual and to society. Here are some reasons why socialization is important. Human culture is transmitted from one generation to the next. The young become part of an organized society.
The individual acquires a social self and personality.
The individual learns his/her role in a society.
Knowledge and skills are developed to ensure satisfaction of needs and human survival. Social Role and Status
The individual learns social role as he/she acquires the culture of the society through interaction. Roles are taught in a direct way, in deliberately planned ways, or in more subtle ways. A role is a pattern of behavior that is expected of an individual who occupies a particular status in society.
A status is a rank or position relative to other positions in a particular group at a particular time. A status may be assigned to a person at birth or at another stage in the life cycle. This is called “ascribed status.” Status may also be attained through personal effort, merit, or choice. This is called “achieved status”. Socialization as Social Control
Consequences of Socialization
1. Establishes self-concepts.
2. Creates the capacity for role taking.
3. Creates the tendency for people to act in socially acceptable ways. 4. Makes people bearers of culture.
Agents of Socialization
1.) Family – It is considered as the most important agent of socialization in the sense that it is usually the first group to provide meaning and support to the individual. Most important agent
a. A loving family produces a happy well-adjusted child.
Parental attention is very important
b. Bonding and encouragement
c. Stimulates development
d. Race, religion, ethnicity, class
2.) Peer Group – It consists of many groups made up of children, in which the child participates. The peer group enables the child to experience an egalitarian type of relationship. Developing sense of self that goes beyond the family
Young and old attitudes and the “generation gap”
Peers often govern short-term goals while parents influence long-term plans. Anticipatory socialization
-Practice working toward gaining desired positions
3.) School – It further transmits society’s central cultural values and ideologies, so that they may fit into the roles of the community. The school exposes children to situations in which the same rules, regulations, and authority patterns apply to everyone. Experience diversity
a. Racial and gender clustering
b. Informal, covert lessons
c. Rules and schedule
Gender socialization begins
d. From grade school through college, gender-linked activities are encountered.
4.) Mass Media – The mass media such as newspaper, radio, movies, television, and books, are also important in communicating to individuals a society’s beliefs, values, mores and traditions. Televisions in the United States
a. 98% of households have at least one TV.
b. Two-thirds of households have cable satellite....
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