PRINCIPLES OF SOCIOLOGY
In each of the following sections, please answer the indicated number of questions. BE SURE TO READ THE DIRECTIONS FOR EACH SECTION CAREFULLY! If you answer more questions than required in a section, your last answer(s) will be disregarded. You may use the discussion forum, your textbook, and your notes to help you with this test.
SECTION 1 - Please answer four of the following six questions. (5 points each)
1. Give an example of cultural lag concerning developments in outer space exploration.
2. Identify at least two reasons why a researcher must perform a literature review before beginning to collect his or her own data.
3. When does socialization begin? Give an example to illustrate your point.
Socialization for humans begins at the time of birth. At this initial stage, it is the learning we experience and the patterns of interaction we use to form a connection with our parents or caregivers who raise us by satisfying our physical needs. According to Piaget, the initial stage of socializing is between the age of zero to 2 months. This stage is called the "Sensorimotor" stage where babbles rely on touching, seeing, sucking and other motor skills to learn the relationship between themselves and the environment around them. A perfect example would be a newborn baby sucking on a bottle. When a nipple is held close to the baby's lips, they start sucking on it. At this stage the baby is totally reflexive and responds to stimuli. Sensory input results in a motor action like sucking on a nipple. Through repeated exposure, the baby learns that the bottle is a source of nourshiment and begins sucking at the sight of the bottle.
4. What type of norm is in effect when drivers stop at a red light? Explain your reasoning.
When drivers stop at a red light, the type of norm in effect is a "More". A more