November 26, 2014
Social Science and How It Connect To The World Around Us.
The social life of a human and how they interact to build relationships with each other is the study of social sciences. Humans express this through several concepts within the social sciences. In the articles “ South Sudan Hangs on Rebel’s Next Move”, by Nicholas Bariyo, “When Whites Just Don’t Get It, Part 3”, by Nicholas Kristof, “Black Candidate’s Rise in Brazil Reflects Shifting Views on Race”, by Loretta Chao, and “Scouts Rethink A Ban on Gays in a Quick Shift”, by Kirk Johnson. The authors, explains these articles by using different theories of social science which are Max Weber views on social stratification, and child development using Sigmund Freud as well as a Karl Marx theory of conflict. Throughout history people have been divided into various groups. These groups consist of, but are not limited to “race”, gender, power, and many more. Society has come to know this form of categorizing as stratification. Stratification is the sense of diversity, until one group feels superior to others. Stratification has a three class system which consists of Estates, castes, and social classes. Estate is in reference to people such as merchants, peasants and nobility. This type of stratification system was developed in Britain under a medieval social system called feudalism. A person who belongs to an estate and is status in a hierarchy, held land from lords in return for military services. In order to obtain a position in an estate a person is almost always inherited. People know who and where this person lies in the “bar”. Castes are a firm label based on birth, income, and race; although this form of stratification is typically connected with India. Social classes are when people in a faction who are similar in their economic status, personality, religions, education and their way of living. Stratification can also happen through “race”. Although there is only one race, “race” is another way people label someone by the color of their skin. Behaviorism is the focus of one's actions, not thoughts. Behaviorism is also known as bio psychological. This act is seen as a chemical stimulus in the body. In other words, the body release a chemical reaction to give off or acceleration of a psychological movement or answer. Nature is the hereditary pattern of physical features in a human being's development. These features include, but are not limited to, our personality, usual and unusual appearances and the general measurements of how humans hold the attributes of being sociable, hostile behavior, their emotions, and the usage of alcohol and drugs. On the other hand Nurture is slightly different. Nurture is the influence of the environment that plays upon the behavior and characteristics in a human. The idea of nurture is that humans will grow up to form their personality on the way they are raised and life experiences.
In the article “South Sudan Hangs on Rebel’s Next Move”, by Nicholas Bariyo, can be analyzed by using Max Weber theory of stratification. Max Weber, a German sociologist born April 21, 1864, seen social stratification to be more than just owning property, such as industrial units. He believed that social class can be defined by power and prestige, as well as income and property. In “South Sudan Hang on Rebel’s Next Move” use this form of social stratification by using power and wealth along with the prestige and property. Research states that Weber believed social class is also formed by power which means an individual has the ability to get what they want, usually because they have money. In addition to, prestige and property means when an individual is intellectual ability and has the wealth to spend; therefore Weber theory of power and wealth intertwine with property and prestige. This article states, “Riek Machar earned a doctorate from British university… vice president in the South Sudan first election… commands 100,000 rebel fighters who threaten to seize… world’s richest oil assets”(Bariyo 1). In reference to the quote, Baryiyo expresses, Weber theory by showing that the Riek Machar classify himself of having power. He shows this by commanding rebels to fight for him. In the article it also states that Machar does not care if the battle ends in blood or peace, even though the odds are against the war ending in harmony. This also shows how prestige plays a part in this article. Because Machar is vice president, he believes that he is above all and, can go against anything he does not seem fit. Furthermore, the writer states that Vice President, Mr. Machar denied a mediator’s proposal on the transitional government. In other words, Bariyo the shows that the vice president is using his power to make his point. He shows that he will not stop fighting unless he wins the fight over oil assets.
In the article “When Whites Just Don’t Get It” by Nicholas Kistof can be dissected by also using the theory of social stratification from Max Weber. The author states, “Some whites think that the fundamental problem is young black men who show no personal responsibility, screws up and then look for others to blame. Yes, that is what happens, I also see a white dominated society that shows no sense of responsibility for disadvantaged children on a path that often propels them toward drugs, crime and joblessness; we fail those kids before they fail us, and then we, too, look for others to blame” (Kistof 1). In other words, that author is expressing the use of stratification, because in this society, it is looked upon that white people are generally put on a petal stool and place in a bubble where they can do no wrong because they come from a group that is lead to believe be flawless. However, in this case they put the blame solely on minorities because they are expressing their form of power. By going further in depth of analyzing this statement you can also use Freud’s theory, because of their childhood they were more than likely taught to put blame on people that society considered beneath them; growing up only lead to their behavior to become increasingly worse.
In the article “Black Candidate’s Rise in Brazil Reflects Shifting Views on Race” by Loretta Chao, uses the theory of conflict. This theory is to prove that inequality exists because of those in control of a disproportionate share of society’s resources to actively defend their advantages. In the article it states, “The country’s government, media, workplaces and even its shopping malls tell a different story… less than 20% of the of the house are black, and we only have two black senators… Blacks Brazilians earn an average of $391 a month, about half what their white counterparts do” (Chao 1). In other words, Blacks in Brazil are still being treated an injustice by the government, because the government should to put up a charade to take advantage of the weak in order to protect their resources. In this case their resources are politics, which equals power. This basically excerpt shows the Marx theory based on conflict, by showing how the government is trying to emphasize control over society. Being that the government is mostly white counter parts they must take control over the weaker group to protect their interest.
In the article “Scouts Rethink A Ban on Gays in a Quick Shift”, by Kirk Johnson, uses the theory of Sigmund Freud. In the article the writer states, “The Boy Scout of America, with its traditions of youth in uniform and the building virtues of honor has always looked back to an older, more structure image of America… openly gay scouts and scout leaders need not apply” (Johnson) This shows how the people in ‘“older”’ America has used nurture in “Nature vs Nurture” to discriminate against gay people. Because the environment the founder of this company lived, taught, engaged in he believes that it is no place for the gays to be in for this organization. Until the media took place in this issue to try to give rights to the gays and re-teach the founder of the organization that equality is equality, he finally ‘“ stepped in the right direction”’.