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By mcabbie Dec 05, 2013 1551 Words
8.3 THE CHURCH’S AUTHORITY GROWS
Recap:
European economy prospered
Growing religious importance
Popes sought to prevent lords from interfering with church affairs Church’s political involvement call for reforms
1. Papacy had become a political prize.
2. Lords meddling with religion.
Bishops were appointed by lords who collected tax from the Church Loyalty and control
3. Decline in spiritual values among clergy.
Monetary incentives, pleasures and possessions
People called for reforms Benedictine monk of the French abbey of Cluny Clergy should live strict and holy lives
Lords should not meddle with religion
Cardinals-appointed the pope
The Pope vs. the Holy Roman Emperor
Investiture conflict and contest  APPOINTMENT OF BISHOPS
Pope Gregory VII- a Benedictine monk
-aka Hildebrand
-demanded that the HRE submit to papal authority
-wanted the HRE to stop appointing bishops
-wanted authority

Henry IV- Holy Roman Emperor
-German bishops  most important allies
-wanted allegiance

Disagreement struggle over authority
Pope Gregory wanted to remove Henry from the throne.
Henry wanted to depose Pope Gregory.
Gregory excommunicated Henry.

Excommunication- expelled from church/disfellowship
Henry was avoided others took advantage

Henry seeks forgiveness
Walk to Canossa – 3 days
Increased the prestige of the papacy

Church and state compromise
Henry V and church
Concordat of Worms
Monarchs had no authority over the church
Bishops were appointed by the church
Bishops were both spiritual and feudal landholders.
Archbishop- staff and ring = sacred authority
Monarchs- scepter = political power
Challenge to the pope  weaker HRE authority
Continuous battle over supremacy
Frederick I
aka Red Beard/ Frederick Barbarossa
6 military expeditions to Italy

Papacy reaches the height of its power
Reached under Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III-made papacy the center of European political life -right to intervene in the internal affairs of any kingdom
-no state could tax the clergy

Crimes against the church
Opposed Heresy
Heresy-greatest crime in the middle ages
-holding of beliefs the church considered wrong

Inquisition-sought out and tried suspected heretics
-investigationtrial torture punishment

Church’s authority is challenged

Waldenses- followers of Peter Waldo, a French merchant
-preached in the language of the people
-clerical criticisms

Albigensians- physical world possessions are evil
- Jesus did not take a human form
- exterminated

Religious orders are formed

Dominicans- founded by St. Dominic
- preaching friars
- worked to suppress heresy

Franciscans- founded by St. Francis of Assisi
- gave up worldly possessions  simple life

8.4 CHRISTIAN EUROPE EXPANDS

Recapturing European lands
Genoa and Pisa drove Muslims from Sardinia.
Norman knights took Sicily
Italian and Norman ships guarded the Mediterranean from attacks of Muslims. Muslims controlled most of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal)

Reconquest- 500-year struggle to recover the rest of Spain

Castile rulers led war against Muslims recaptured lands

Granada- only kingdom left held by the Muslims

Pope calls for a crusade

Pope Urban II appealed to recapture the Holy Land
Wanted Jerusalem
Wanted the lords to stop fighting among themselves
Crusade- “holy wars”

Crusades by the common people
Peter the Hermit-called thousands of peasants to become crusaders -crushed by Turksfew reached the Holy Land

German crusaders- regarded all non-Christians as enemies of the faithviolence

First Crusade

Assembled at Constantinople
Arrived at Antioch and captured it from Turks
Recaptured Jerusalem

Second Crusade

Muslims retook Edessasecond crusade
Called by Pope Eugenius III
King Louis of France and HRE Conrad III large forces
Unsuccessful

Saladin-sultan of Egypt
-united Egyptian and Syrian Muslims
-recaptured Palestine
-led the Muslims against Christian invaders

Third Crusade

Led by Richard I of England, Philip Augustus of France and HRE Frederick I Rivalry between the kingsdownfall
Muslims won

Fourth Crusade

Called by Pope Innocent III
10, 000 crusaders left Venice
Attacked Constantinople few reached the Holy Land
Muslims won

Effects of the Crusades

1. Decline in the reverence of the papacy.
Popes were just using the crusades to increase the Church’s political power.

2. Decline of Feudalism
Many noblemen lost their fortunes
Monarchs took advantage

3. Growth of Trade
Europeans got to know more products of the East.

Germans expand eastward

Expanded to areas south of the Baltic Sea
Lordsacquire more lands
Peasantsland they can own
Missionariesmore people to convert
Merchantsopportunities for trade
Conquered the Slavs (Slovenia and Estonia)
Conquered the Prussians through Teutonic Knights

Effects of German Expansion

1. Migration of Germans to new lands.
2. Development of towns
3. Heavy plows
4. New Christians
5. Spread of German language and culture
6. Growth of trading

Hanseatic League

Trade union
Expand trade
Protection from pirates
Combat competition from Denmark

9.1 INTEREST IN LEARNING REVIVES

Recap:
Early middle agesdecline in learning
Monks studied and copied ancient manuscriptspreservation of learning

Learning continues outside Christian Europe

Byzantine and Muslim scholars continued to value Greek works Interest in learning was revived in Europe
Spain and Sicily centers of translation of works into Latin

University of Toledo-specialized school of translation
-translated Greek and Arabic works into Latin

Medieval Universities

Townspeople had money to support schools
Rise in demand for professionals
“universitas”-Latin. corporation or guild
Big universities were established—Paris, Oxford, Bologna, Salerno Expected to pass an exam and submit a paper
Grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music Exams in Latin

University life is demanding

Books were expensive
Uncomfortable living conditions

Religion and Medieval thinking

Religion=basis for explanations
Studied Bible and clerical writings
Guide to life and basis of knowledge
Greek philosophy in conflict with Christian teachings

Scholastics-argued that reason can be used to explain Christian teachings

Thomas Aquinas-most brilliant scholar
-Dominican Order
-reason and Christian teaching came from God both true
-wrote the Summa Theologica

Geocentric view

Interest in science grows

Interest in studying the natural world

Albertus Magnus-greatest naturalist
-teacher of Thomas Aquinas
-wrote about geology, chemistry, botany and zoology

Roger Bacon-Franciscan monk
-light, optics, rainbows and tides

Limitations of Medieval Science

Science was mixed with ideas based on magic, superstitions and folk legends. Astrology and alchemy
Believed many mistaken theories

9.2 MEDIEVAL ART

Religious themes in medieval drama

Most people could not read or writehymns, songs and dramas Bible stories and lives of saintsMystery and miracle plays Morality playsrelatable
Everyman-most famous morality play
Local languages in literature

Oral tradition was written in vernacular languages

Latin-language of the Church and scholars
-other languages grew out

Vernacular languages-local languages that grew out of Latin
-Spanish, French, Italian and Rumanian

TITLE
Origin/Author
DESCRIPTION
Beowolf
Old English
-based on a Danish legend
-oldest great literary work in a vernacular language
-Beowolf vs. Grendel
Volsunga Saga
Scandinavian epic
-a Scandinavian epic
-story of the Volsung clan
Song of the Nibelung
German epic
-about Siegfried the dragon slayer
Song of Roland
French heroic poem
-tales of Charlemagne’s court
Poem of the Cid
Spanish epic
-Spanish hero who fought the Muslims
Tales of the Round Table
From England
-King Arthur, his court at the Camelot and knights of the Round Table Divine Comedy
Dante Alighieri (greatest poet of the middle ages)
-one of the greatest literary work
-about a poet’s journey through hell, purgatory and heaven guided by Virgil Canterbury Tales
Geoffrey Chaucer
-everyday life in medieval England
-about the group of pilgrims to the cathedral at Canterbury

Court troubadours write about love

Short verses, poems and songs were written about courtly love Troubadourspledged love to their noblewomen
Noblewomenwrote poems

Marie de France-prominent woman writer

Courtly lovenew standards

Knights had to treat women with respect
Romantic love developed
Love improved a man’s characterworthy of his lady love
Created idealized view of women

ARTS AND ARCHITECTURE

Medieval arts

Focused on religion

Medieval Architecture

Romanesque style-rounded arches
-massive walls and small windows

Gothic style-pointed arches
-tall windows
-high ceilings
-testament to the religious devotion of the town

9.3 THE MIDDLE AGES DRAWS TO A CLOSE

Late Middle Ages (14th-15th Century)

1. Decline in population
2. Peasant rebellions
3. Hundred Years’ War
4. Decline of Papal Authority
5. Reforms from the Church

Decline of Population

The Great Famine
No agricultural advancements
Worsening weatherhard to obtain saltprices rose

The Black Death
Aka Bubonic Plague
One of the most devastating pandemics in history
First struck in Asia
Transmitted by merchant ships
Carried by fleas on rats
“punishment of God”mass hysteria
Jews were blamed for the plague

Peasant Rebellions

Workers diedproduction declinedprices rose
Nobles demanded more taxes
Peasants wages no longer sufficientrevolts
Peasant revolts suppressed by forcesocial unrest

Hundred Years’ War

Lasted for approx. 100 years
England and France had a long standing territorial dispute because of their kings English longbow and cannon was introduced
Battle of AgincourtHenry V, English king, defeated the French Treaty Henry married Princess Catherine of Valois
England started to dominate the Hundred Years’ War

Joan of Arc

Had a mission to drive out the English
Believed that God inspired her
Encouraged and asked the Dauphin to lead his troops
Lead the French troops to victory at Orleans
Dauphin King Charles VII
Later captured and burned at the stake
Accused of being a witch
Her deathmotivated the Frenchrecovered their land
Calais was the only English land left
Patroness of French and national heroine

French kings gain strength

French kings fortified their ruletaxesable and satisfied army Charles VII Louis XI

Louis XI
“The Spider”
Used different tactics to increase his power

Charles the Bold
Greatest feudal lord
Held Burgundy

Louis XI supported the enemies of Charles Charles died in battle Louis took over Burgundy and other states without heirs

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