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Social Policy
1.1 Identify key historical landmarks in social welfare focusing on the period upto 1945.

During the period of 1900s to 1945s, there was various significant landmarks which focused on the social welfare of the people in the United Kingdom. The Uk government launched various welfare programmes through the social welfare provision, financial abet or social security which refers to a programme having the main objective is to provide a minimum level of the income to the people who don’t have financial support, employment and those who are elderly and disabled. Many researchers reveal that the rate of the poverty is high so the government had a responsibility towards the moral obligation of the people and those projects were established to minimize the poverty level.

In the year 1901, there was the beginning of the poverty which was shown by the examination done by the social investigator named Seebohm Bowntree. His investigation was detailed in his book named ‘Poverty, A study of Town life regarding the poverty in York’ which indicated that 28% of the York population is suffered by the below poverty. Even the people who did full time job were likely to reach the starvation level due to the minimum payment in their job. An Act known by the name of The Old Pension Act was developed in 1908 for the modernization of the social welfare in the United Kingdom that provided pension for the non- contributory old age. The pension was paid 5s per a week only to the eligible. This leaded to the peoples budget which was regarded as the first budget in history of the Britain’s political life as it introduced various unprecedented taxes in the programme related with wealthy and radical social welfare. David Georgealso introduced the budget
There was another act introduced in 1911 comprising of two parts: the national insurance Actpart I and part II. The National Insurance Part I distributed the national insurance scheme along with the provision of the medical



References: 1. J Bradshaw, 1972, A taxonomy of social need, New Society ( March) 640-3. 2. D Piachaud, 1981, Peter Townsend and the Holy Grail, New Society (Sept.) 421. 3. B S Rowntree, 1901, Poverty: a study of town life, Longman. 4. United Nations, 1995, The Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action, UN. 5. P Townsend, 1979, Poverty in the United Kingdom, Penguin. 6. See e.g. I Kolvin et al, 1990, Continuities of deprivation, Avebury. 7. D Gordon et al, 1999, Poverty and social exclusion in Britain, Joseph Rowntree jFoundation. 8. M K Pringle, 1974, The needs of children, Hutchinson. 9. UN Declaration of the Rights of the Rights, 1959, Article 6. 10. W Wolfensberger, 1972, The principle of normalization in human services, National Institute on Mental Retardation (Toronto). 11. R Flynn, R Lemay (eds), 1999, A Quarter-century of normalization and social role valorization, University of Ottawa Press. 12. World Health Organisation, 2000, ICIDH-2, WHO.   F Williams, 1988, Social policy, Polity.

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