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Social Network of Jose Rizal

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THE SOCIAL NETWORK OF JOSE RIZAL
José Rizal was a Filipino nationalist and reformist. He was born on June 19, 1861 and was executed December 30, 1896 by the Spanish colonial government in the Philippines. He is considered to be the national hero of the Philippines. Schooled in Europe, he was the most prominent advocate for reform in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial era. He was wrongly implicated as the leader of a violent revolution, and that led to his execution. December 30, now celebrated as Rizal Day, is a national holiday in the Philippines. Data from WolframAlpha, a popular computational knowledge engine, show that interests in Rizal somewhat peak every June and December (coinciding with his birth month and death month, respectively) of each year, as revealed in the English-language Wikipedia average daily “Jose Rizal” page hits. In fact, such page hits almost reached 20,000 during his 150th birth anniversary in 2011. The daily “Jose Rizal” page hits in the Spanish-, German-, French-, as well as in the Tagalog-language Wikipedias display similar pattern. The timeline of Rizal’s life also shows that he lived a relatively short life: dying a martyr’s death at age 35. Rizal’s popularity as an activist pales in comparison with the Indian Mohandas Karamchand “Mahatma” Gandhi and the Black American Martin Luther King Jr., as similarly revealed by comparative Englishlanguage Wikipedia page hits. While searches for “Jose Rizal” in the English-language Wikipedia reach tens of thousands, the daily searches for the two other activists reach hundreds of thousands during 1

peak periods. Again, the daily page hits for the three said activists, display similar patterns in the Spanishlanguage, German-language, and the French-language Wikipedias. However, the Tagalog-language Wikipedia has much more page hits for Jose Rizal than either of the two other activists, perhaps because it has just been set up relatively recently, and the “Jose Rizal” page has been created several years earlier. More importantly, the number of Filipinos who prefer using the Tagalog-language Wikipedia over the English-language Wikipedia has started to rapidly increase in recent years, perhaps out of nationalism. It may be interesting to know the structural equivalence of the networks of the three said activists, which to the author’s knowledge and belief, up till now has not yet been constructed and published. Thus, this paper starts by first attempting to construct the social network of Rizal, from the numerous data published by the National Historical Institute (of the Philippines) and the relatively recent news and activities related to him. The author is aware of two undergraduate student proposals to work on Gandhi’s social network and one on Martin Luther King’s, but none yet on the Philippine national hero. Rizal’s network data should not only include information that he was born to a wealthy family in Calamba, Laguna and was the seventh of eleven children; it must also include his parents’ circumstances as well, and 2

even his paternal Chinese ancestry. He attended the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, earning a Bachelor of Arts diploma and studied medicine at the University of Santo Tomas in Manila. Ron Burt’s notion of a structural hole (Burt, 1992), social capital (Lin 2001: 549) and a theory on small worlds (Watts, 1999) were explored in Rizal’s initial social network formed from the aforementioned. The facts that the Canellas meteorite, an 859-gramchondrite type meteorite, strikes the Earth near Barcelona, Spain; and that the “Great Comet of 1861” (later formally designated as Comet C/1861 J1 and 1861 II) was discovered in Australia, about a month before Rizal was born, may have an effect on the later founding of the Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi (“Church of the Banner of the Race”), once a few thousand-strong religious group venerating Rizal. Even Palma (1949) and much later Covar (1975) missed the importance of the latter astronomical event to pre-19th Century rural Filipinos who had superstitions on apparitions of comets. The Great Comet of 1861 was not visible in the Philippines until June 29, but it arrived before word of the comet 's discovery. Decades later, the Austrian Philippinologist Ferdinand Blumentritt would say, “his [Rizal’s] coming to the world is like the appearance of a rare comet, whose brilliance appears only every other century.”

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Rizal’s network should also include people he met and interacted with when continued his studies at the Universidad Central de Madrid in Spain where he earned a Licentiate in Medicine, making him eligible to practice medicine. This can be seen in Figure 3, which was labeled manually after having NodeXL (a free and open add-in for Microsoft Excel that supports network overview and exploration) graph a spiral representation of time with the interconnections of events. However, it should be noted that only selected entries for selected years were made to avoid messing up the figure. For example, the figure does not show the important events that Rizal also attended lectures at the University of Paris and the University of Heidelberg, nor his 6-week stay in Japan, nor his medical practice in Hong Kong. Even then, in spite of the incomplete entries in Figure 3, it can be still shown that Rizal’s vast network extended from country to country during his lifetime. Jose Rizal lived in Europe for about ten years and during that time he picked up a number of languages and took interest in different fields of study: martial arts, fencing, sculpture, painting, anthropology, and journalism, among other things. It was during his European sojourn that he also began to write his famous novels. Rizal may have heavily edited his first novel while living in rural Germany with a Lutheran Pastor. While abroad, he wrote significant portions of his diaries in Spanish, French, German, English and Italian. Figure 3 shows too that Rizal’s network continued to expand even in subsequent years following his death in 1896. For example, in 1901 after the bloody Filipino-American War, the United States colonized the Philippines shortly after it gained independence from Spain in 1898. However, in 1902 an Organic Act was passed by the U.S. Congress calling for the Philippines to manage its own affairs by establishing the first elective Philippine Assembly and the Philippine Legislature. The passage of the Act may be attributed in part to Rizal’s farewell poem to his country. At first, there was strong opposition to the passage of the bill from some misinformed members of the American House of Representatives who referred to Filipinos as ‘barbarians’ incapable of self-government. Thereupon, Congressman Henry A. Cooper (Republican, Wisconsin) took the floor and recited Rizal’s poem before the House, stanza by stanza. Soon after his recitation, Cooper asked his colleagues might there be a future for such a barbaric, uncivilized people who had given the world a noble man as Rizal. After a short recess the vote was taken on the bill, and passed the US House of Congress. The use of NodeXL software (downloadable from http://nodexl.codeplex.com/) for carrying out social network analysis on all the above-mentioned data connected to Rizal proved to be thought-provoking to the author. The said software enabled new ways of viewing the life of the Philippine national hero that was not possible in simply reading texts linearly or unidirectional graphs like the timeline. The data used were based not only on Rizal’s extant letters to his family members, friends, and reformists; literary works, and works of art; but also other past and recent events about him, including the Retraction Controversy, the enactment of the Rizal Law, and the sesquicentennial or 150th birth anniversary of Rizal as celebrated in the Philippines and even in other countries like Peru, Mainland China and Australia where Rizal had never been but may have enough supporters of his ideas, or admirers in recent times, or for other reasons that people find it fitting to commemorate Rizal. The data visualizations of the network of Rizal, using other options of the NodeXL software, turn out to be even more interesting because Rizal was a polymath (see Figure 4). His being a polymath is to be 4

noted in various points in this paper: besides medicine, he was also an artist who dabbled in painting, sketching, sculpting and woodcarving. He was a prolific poet, essayist, and novelist whose most famous works were his two novels, Noli Me Tangere and its sequel, El Filibusterismo. These social commentaries during the Spanish colonization of the country formed the nucleus of literature that inspired peaceful reformists and armed revolutionaries alike. Furthermore, that Rizal was a polyglot as well has been mentioned earlier in this paper; by 1896 while on exile in Dapitan, there are indications that Rizal continued his informal language studies to become conversant in twenty-two (22) languages in all, as if he was pushing his social capital to its limits!

Data visualizations of the network further confirmed that, as a political figure, José Rizal was an influential founder of La Liga Filipina, a civic organization of substantial social capital that subsequently gave birth to the Katipunan led by Andrés Bonifacio, a secret society which would start the Philippine Revolution against Spain that eventually laid the foundation of the First Philippine Republic. Similar to the findings of Granovetter (1973), the weak ties between Rizal and the members of the nascent revolutionary movement (Katipunan) provided more impact than the strong ties that Rizal had with the members of the Freemasonry and that of Propaganda Movement composed of Illustrados. The role that Rizal’s network played in shaping and influencing the Katipunan members’ perceptions, behaviors and attitudes cannot be overemphasized. Friedkin (1998) somehow argues that actors who are similar according to attitudes, values and behaviors are likely to be socially tied to one another and thus, it is 5

through this social tie that Katipunan members mutually influenced one another and became similar to one another over time. This is related to the intertwined concepts of homophily and social selection (Lazarsfeld and Merton, 1954; McPherson, 2001; Mercken et al., 2001; Robins et al., 2001). Figure 4 shows what has been known before: that he was a polymath, a prolific writer and author of many works. However, it appears to newly reveal that Rizal’s two novels, Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, may have been effective as propaganda materials but they are somewhat run-of-the-mill as works in literature, as no Spanish anthology would include them. Although Rizal’s study of local conchology cannot outdo them even after a recent correction was considered regarding Rizal’s letters to European scientists, where T.M. Kalaw thought the listings therein were that of butterflies when in fact they were of seashells that Rizal and his students have gathered during his exile in Dapitan. Rizal on several occasions sent specimens to them in Europe and to some conchologists staying in Manila. A strong affirmation is notable also in Figure 4 that Rizal’s untitled last poem, more popularly known as Mi Ultimo Adios that goes, ‘Adiós, Patria adorada/ región del sol querida, … ’ outshine any and all of his works. This last poem of Rizal could be the most translated patriotic swan song in the world, and interpretations into 46 Filipino languages including Filipino Sign Language, and as of 2005 at least 35 English translations are known and published. This poem has been earlier translated into at least 38 other languages (Garcia, 1961). The latest translation is in Czech made by a Czech diplomat and addressed at the session of their Senate (Ludva, 2006).

Social network analysis also confirmed that Rizal was a critical proponent of achieving Philippine selfgovernment peacefully through institutional reforms rather than through violent revolution, and would only support “violent means” as a last resort. Rizal was a top social connector who believed that the only justification for national liberation and self-government is the restoration of the dignity of the people, 6

saying “Why independence, if the slaves of today will be the tyrants of tomorrow?” Dyad census was performed which involves counting how many null, asymmetric and mutual dyads exist in Rizal’s network; it helped the author to zoom in on properties of ties between two actors, though the census fails to account for all such properties. The strength of each tie and tie multiplexity (actors sharing more than one kind of tie with one another) showed that the general consensus among historian-scholars is that Rizal’s execution by the Spanish government ignited the Philippine Revolution in 1896. The Clauset-Newman-Moore algorithm was the option chosen to analyze by cluster the interactions with Rizal in his very large network. In this case the algorithm is agglomerative and at each step the merge is decided by the optimization of modularity that it produces as the result of the merge. This is a very fast algorithm, but has the disadvantage of being greedy (Clauset et al., 2004), so it might not produce the best overall community partitioning, although the author finds it useful and accurate. When the Clauset-Newman-Moore algorithm was run each vertex is assigned to one of a set of groups based on its decision rules. In general, the algorithm tries to place collections of densely connected vertices into separate groups or clusters (see Figure 6).

How Rizal’s other legacies continue to expand long after his death in 1896 may be investigated in various points of view. Many other recorded events and activities have influence on the Rizaline network and can be further analyzed using any of the other algorithm options of NodeXL software. The author generated more than fifty ‘raw’ graphs to analyze the social network of Rizal. As Jacob Moreno, the father of sociometry noted, drawing graphs of networks is a method of ‘exploration’ (Moreno, 1953). In fact, the author’s initial look at the graphs revealed very little since the network is very large 7

and there are too many crossover ties. Thus, to help in the visualization, the author included additional data into the graphs, in the form of attribute data, and also in the form of previous analyses conducted on the network. Due to time and space constraints and other resource limitations, only two more events after Rizal’s martyrdom shall be discussed and presented in this paper regarding their effect on the network: 1) the Retraction Controversy and, 2) the Republic Act 1425 or more popularly called Rizal Law (see Figure 7). These two were chosen by the author because of their impact to the present significant events in the Philippines.

The Retraction Controversy. In social exchange theory, exchanging social and material resources is fundamental to all human interaction, and that such interactions are shaped by unequal power relationships between individuals, which in turn are influenced by the network structure in which actors are found (Cook et al., 1983). This social exchange was not so apparent at first when several historians report that Rizal retracted his anti-Catholic ideas through a document which stated: “I retract with all my heart whatever in my words, writings, publications and conduct have been contrary to my character as a son of the Catholic Church.” However, doubts of its authenticity were soon expressed, most of which point to the given that there is no certificate of Rizal’s Catholic marriage to Josephine Bracken. (The Roman Catholic Church’s pre-condition for Rizal to be able to marry Josephine Bracken was “a retraction of what he has written against the [Roman Catholic] Church.”) The group of people who believe that Rizal did not retract (the “anti-retractionists” cluster) also point to a line in Rizal’s last poem: “I go where ... faith does not kill,” which they believe refers to the Catholic religion. Lastly, many members of the same cluster also hold to an allegation that the retraction document was a forgery.

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After analyzing six major documents of Rizal, Ricardo Pascual concluded that the retraction document, said to have been discovered in 1935 by a Spanish priest Manuel Garcia C.M., was not in Rizal’s handwriting. Senator Rafael Palma, a former President of the University of the Philippines and a prominent Mason, argued that a retraction is not in keeping with Rizal’s character and mature beliefs. He called the retraction story a “pious fraud.” Others who deny the retraction are Frank Laubach, a Protestant minister; Austin Coates, a British writer; and Ricardo Manapat, the director of the National Archives then. On the other side are prominent Philippine historians such as Nick Joaquin, Nicolas Zafra, former Chair of the History Department of the University of the Philippines, Leon Maria Guerrero III, Gregorio Zaide, Guillermo Gómez Rivera, Ambeth Ocampo, John Schumacher, Antonio Molina, Paul Dumol and Austin Craig. They take the retraction document as authentic, having been judged as such by a foremost expert on the writings of Rizal, Teodoro M. Kalaw (a 33rddegree Mason) and “handwriting experts ... known and recognized in our courts of justice”, Anthropologist H. Otley Beyer and Dr. José I. Del Rosario, both of the University of the Philippines. Historians also refer to 11 eyewitnesses when Rizal wrote his retraction, signed a Catholic prayer book, and recited Catholic prayers, and the multitude who saw him kiss the crucifix before his execution. A great-grandnephew of Rizal, Fr. Marciano Guzman, cites that Rizal 's four confessions were certified by five eyewitnesses, 10 qualified witnesses, 7 newspapers, and 12 historians and writers including bishops of the Philippine Independent Church, Masons and anti-clericals. One witness was the head of the Spanish Supreme Court at the time of his notarized declaration and was highly esteemed by Rizal for his integrity. Because of what he sees as the strength these direct evidence have in the light of the historical method, in contrast with merely circumstantial evidence, University of the Philippines professor emeritus of history Nicolas Zafra called the retraction “a plain unadorned fact of history.” Guzmán attributes the denial of retraction to “the blatant disbelief and stubbornness” of some Masons. A number of the supporters see in the retraction Rizal’s “moral courage ... to recognize his mistakes,” his reversion to the “true faith,” and thus his “unfading glory,” and a return to the “ideals of his ancestors” which “did not diminish his stature as a great patriot; on the contrary, it increased that stature to greatness.” On the other hand, Senator Jose Diokno stated, “Surely whether Rizal died as a Catholic or an apostate adds or detracts nothing from his greatness as a Filipino .... Catholic or Mason, Rizal is still Rizal–the hero who courted death ‘to prove to those who deny our patriotism that we know how to die for our duty and our beliefs’.” The controversy whether Rizal actually wrote a retraction document only lies in the judgment of its reader, as no amount of proof can probably make the two opposing groups—the Masonic Rizalists (who firmly believe that Rizal did not withdraw) and the Catholic Rizalists (who were convinced Rizal retracted)—agree with each other. Benjamin Mangubat and Rolando Talampas, both history professors of the University of the Philippines-Manila believe that even if a retraction paper was truly signed by Rizal, it will still be of little value because it was signed under duress and “confessions, declarations, and the like, signed at the point of a bayonet or under threat of some kind, are of little use as evidence in the court of law.” No doubt that by the 1940s, the Retraction Controversy caused the “anti-retractionists” to feel threatened. They thought that in the future Filipinos may no longer have the same respect that they 9

have for Rizal, or at least give the respect and veneration that is due to the martyr of Bagumbayan. In fact, it was also during this period when the malicious gossips that Rizal could have been the “Jack the Ripper” of London, or could have been the father of Adolf Hitler, began circulating. The “antiretractionists” were to go on the offensive to find an ally in the House of Representatives to propose a bill that will ensure that Rizal’s ideals will be effectively remembered by the succeeding generations. This can be done by mandating all schools and educational institutions in the Philippines to teach Rizal’s life, works and writings, in particular, his novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. The Rizal Law. The “Anti-retractionists” cluster found their “top social connector” in Senator Claro M. Recto who was the main proponent of the then Rizal Bill. He sought to sponsor the bill at Congress. However, this was met with stiff opposition from the Catholic Church. During the 1955 Senate election, the church charged Recto with being a communist and an anti-Catholic. After Recto’s election, the Church continued to oppose the bill mandating the reading of Rizal’s novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, claiming it would violate freedom of conscience and religion. In the campaign to oppose the Rizal bill, the Catholic Church urged its adherents to write to their congressmen and senators showing their opposition to the bill. Later, it organized symposiums. In one of these symposiums, Fr. Jesus Cavanna argued that the novels belonged to the past and that teaching them would misrepresent current conditions. Radio commentator Jesus Paredes also said that Catholics had the right to refuse to read them as it would “endanger their salvation”. Several groups such as Catholic Action of the Philippines, the Congregation of the Mission, the Knights of Columbus, and the Catholic Teachers Guild organized opposition to the bill. However, they were countered by Veteranos de la Revolucion (Spirit of 1896), Alagad ni Rizal, the Freemasons, and the Knights of Rizal. The Senate Committee on Education sponsored a bill co-written by both Jose P. Laurel and Recto, with the only opposition coming from Senators Francisco Soc Rodrigo, Mariano Jesús Cuenco, and Decoroso Rosales (a brother of Julio Rosales, Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and the second Archbishop of Cebu). The Archbishop of Manila, the first Filipino Cardinal Rufino Jiao Santos, protested in a pastoral letter that Catholic students would be affected if compulsory reading of the unexpurgated version were pushed through. Arsenio Lacson, then mayor of Manila, who supported the bill, walked out of Mass in disappointment when the priest read a circular from the archbishop denouncing the bill. Rizal, according to Cuenco, “attack[ed] dogmas, beliefs and practices of the Church. The assertion that Rizal limited himself to castigating undeserving priests and refrained from criticizing, ridiculing or putting in doubt dogmas of the Catholic Church, is absolutely gratuitous and misleading.” Cuenco touched on Rizal’s denial of the existence of purgatory, as it was not found in the Bible, and that Moses and Jesus Christ did not mention its existence; Cuenco concluded that a “majority of the Members of this Chamber, if not all [including] our good friend, the gentleman from Sulu” believed in purgatory. The senator from Sulu, Domocao Alonto, attacked Filipinos who proclaimed Rizal as “their national hero but seemed to despise what he had written”, saying that the Indonesians used Rizal’s books as their Bible on their independence movement. Pedro López, who hails from Cebu, Cuenco’s province, in his support for the bill, reasoned out that it was in their province the independence movement started, when LapuLapu resisted Ferdinand Magellan’s plan to subjugate them. Outside the Senate, the Catholic schools threatened to close down if the bill was passed; Recto countered that if that happened, the schools would be nationalized. Recto did not believe the threat, 10

stating that the schools were too profitable to be closed. The schools gave up the threat, but threatened to “punish” legislators in favor of the law in future elections. A compromise was suggested, to use the expurgated version; Recto, who had supported the required reading of the unexpurgated version, declared: “The people who would eliminate the books of Rizal from the schools would blot out from our minds the memory of the national hero. This is not a fight against Recto but a fight against Rizal,” adding that since Rizal is dead, they are attempting to suppress his memory. On May 12, 1956, a compromise inserted by Committee on Education chairman Laurel that accommodated the objections of the Catholic Church was approved unanimously. The bill specified that college (university) students would have the option of not reading the unexpurgated versions of Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo if they believe that those clerically-contested reading materials “will offend their conscience and imperil their souls”. The bill was enacted on June 12, 1956, which was then celebrated as Flag Day. Section 1 of the Rizal bill mandated that the students were to read the novels as they were written in Spanish, although a provision ordered that the Board of National Education create rules on how these should be applied. The last two sections were focused on making Rizal’s works accessible to the general public: the second section mandated the schools to have “an adequate number” of copies in their libraries, while the third ordered the board to publish the works in major Philippine languages. After the bill was enacted into law, there were no recorded instances of students applying for exemption from reading the novels, and no known procedure for such exemptions. In 1994, then President Fidel V. Ramos ordered the Department of Education, Culture and Sports to fully implement the law as there had been reports that it has still not been fully implemented. The debate during the enactment of the Rizal Law has been compared to the Reproductive Health bill (RH bill) debate of 2011. Akbayan Party List representative Kaka Bag-ao, one of the proponents of the RH bill, said, quoting the Catholic hierarchy, that “More than 50 years ago, they said the Rizal Law violates the Catholic’s right to conscience and religion, interestingly, the same line of reasoning they use to oppose the RH bill.” Lastly, the enduring effect of the Rizal Law to the present-day and future Filipinos has been recently felt. The Kindergarten plus twelve years of Basic Education Program (or K+12 Program), which was formally launched last school year 2012-2013, will affect higher education institutions in the Philippines. As approved on 28 October 2011 by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), the current General Education Curriculum will be reduced to 36 units from the current 63/51 units. The 36 units are to be distributed as follows: 24 units of core courses; 9 units of elective courses; and 3 units on the life and works of Rizal (as mandated by law). Note that the 3-unit course on the life and works of Rizal will be retained, whereas many other courses will be removed for lack of relevance. The network of teachers and educators in the Philippines still think and believe that Rizal is relevant in our times.

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References
Ancheta, Celedonio A. (1977) Jose Rizal 's Life and His Complete Works. Diliman, Quezon City: National Bookstore, Inc. Blumenstihl D. (2005) Jose Rizal, une oeuvre, une vie. (French) Jose Rizal’s connection with Don Quixote and Cervantes.380 p. Ed. Delarose. ISBN 2-9522261-2-1. Blumenstihl D. (2011) Jose Rizal, kabbaliste. (French) Jose Rizal, portrait of a kabbalist. 384 p. Ed. Peleman. Burt, Ronald S. (1995) Structural holes: the social structure of competition. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-84371-4. Catchillar, Chryzelle P. (1994) The Twilight in the Philippines. Clauset, A. Newman, M.E.J., and Moore, C. (2004) ‘Finding community structure in very large networks’ Physical Review E 70, 066111 http://www.arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0408187 Cook, K.S., Emerson, R.M., Gilmore, M.R. and Yamagishi, T. (1983) ‘The distribution of power in exchange networks: Theory and experimental results’, American Journal of Sociology, 89: 275-305. Covar, Prospero R. (1975) The Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi: An Anthropological Study of a Social Movement in the Philippines. A Dissertation Submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Tucson (Ari.), University of Arizona. Endaya, I.C. (1994) "Altar" by Jose D. Caancan (Rizal’s student in Dapitan). In CCP Encyclopedia of Philippine Art, 1st ed., Vol. 4, 323. Philippines: CCP Publications Office. Fadul, Jose (2002/2008) A Workbook for a Course in Rizal. Manila: De La Salle University Press. ISBN 971-555-426-1 /C&E Publishing. ISBN 978-971-584-648-6. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, J. (1900) A History of Spanish Literature. New York: Appleton and Company. Friedkin, N.E. (1998) A Structural Theory of Social Influences. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Garcia, Mauro (1961) 'Translations of Mi Ultimo Adios, ' in Historical Bulletin Manila. Philippine Historical Association. Guerrero, Leon Ma. (2007) The First Filipino. Manila: National Historical Institute of the Philippines (1962); Guerrero Publishing. ISBN 971-93418-2-3. Hessel, Dr. Eugene A. (1965) Rizal 's Retraction: A Note on the Debate. Silliman University Jalosjos, Romeo G. (ed.) (2007) The Dapitan Correspondence of Dr. Jose Rizal and Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt. The City Government Dapitan City: Philippines. ISBN 978-971-93553-0-4. Joaquin, Nick (1977) A Question of Heroes: Essays and criticisms on ten key figures of Philippine History. Manila: Ayala Museum. Lazarsfeld, P.F. and Merton, R.K. (1954) ‘Friendship as social process: A substantive and methodological analysis’, in P.L. Kendall (ed.) ,The Varied Sociology of Paul F. Lazarsfeld. New York: Columbia University Press. Lin, Nan (2001) Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52167-3. 12

Ludva, Jaroslav (2006). Mi último adiós - Poslední rozloučení. The Embassy of the Czech Republic in Manila. Mapa, Christian Angelo A.(1993) The Poem of the Famous Young Elder Jose Rizal McPherson, M., Smith-Lovin, L., and Cook , J.M. (2001) ‘Birds of a feather: Homophily in social network’, Annual Review of Sociology, 27:415-44. Medina, Elizabeth (1998) Rizal According to Retana: Portrait of a Hero and a Revolution. Santiago, Chile: Virtual Multimedia. ISBN 956-7483-09-4. Mercken, L., Snijders, T.A.B., Steglich, C., and Vriesa, H.D. (2009) ‘Dynamics of adolescent friendship networks and smoking behavior: social network analysis in six European countries’, Social Science & Medicine, 69: 1506-14. Moreno, Jacob L. (1953) Who shall survive? Foundations of sociometry, group psychotherapy and sociodrama . Beacon, NY: Beacon House. Ocampo, Ambeth R. (2008) Rizal without the Overcoat. Pasig: Anvil Publishing. Ocampo, Ambeth R. (2001) Meaning and history: The Rizal Lectures. Pasig: Anvil Publishing. Ocampo, Ambeth R. (1993) Calendar of Rizaliana in the vault of the National Library. Pasig: Anvil Publishing. Ocampo, Ambeth R.(1992) Makamisa: The Search for Rizal’s Third Novel. Pasig: Anvil Publishing. Palma, Rafael (1949) The Pride of the Malay Race. Tr. from original Spanish (Biografía de Rizal) by Roman Ozaeta. New York: Prentice-Hall. Quirino, Carlos (1997) The Great Malayan. Makati City: Tahanan Books. ISBN 971-630-085-9. Republic of the Philippines. CHED Memorandum Order No. 2, series of 2011, specifying that the Revised General Education Curriculum will have 36 units for all students regardless of major. Rizal, Jose. (1889) ‘Sa mga Kababayang Dalaga ng Malolos’ in Escritos Politicos y Historicos de Jose Rizal (1961). Manila: National Centennial Commission. Robins, G., Elliot, P. and Pattison, P. (2001) ‘Network models for social selection processes’, Social Networks, 23: 1-30. Runes, Ildefonso (1962) The Forgery of the Rizal Retraction. Manila: Community Publishing Co. Thomas, Megan C. (2012) Orientalists, Propagandists, and “Ilustrados”: Filipino Scholarship and the End of Spanish Colonialism. University of Minnesota Press. Tomas, Jindřich (1998) Jose Rizal, Ferdinand Blumentritt and the Philippines in the New Age. The City of Litomerice: Czech Republic. Publishing House Oswald Praha (Prague). Venzon, Jahleel Areli A. (1994) The Doorway to hell, Rizal’s Biography. Watts, D. J. (1999) Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks Between Order and Randomness. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00541-9. Zaide, Gregorio F. (2003) Jose Rizal: Life, Works and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist and National Hero. Manila: National Bookstore. ISBN971-08-0520-7.

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References: Ancheta, Celedonio A. (1977) Jose Rizal 's Life and His Complete Works. Diliman, Quezon City: National Bookstore, Inc. Blumenstihl D. (2005) Jose Rizal, une oeuvre, une vie. (French) Jose Rizal’s connection with Don Quixote and Cervantes.380 p. Ed. Delarose. ISBN 2-9522261-2-1. Blumenstihl D. (2011) Jose Rizal, kabbaliste. (French) Jose Rizal, portrait of a kabbalist. 384 p. Ed. Peleman. Burt, Ronald S. (1995) Structural holes: the social structure of competition. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-84371-4. Catchillar, Chryzelle P. (1994) The Twilight in the Philippines. Clauset, A. Newman, M.E.J., and Moore, C. (2004) ‘Finding community structure in very large networks’ Physical Review E 70, 066111 http://www.arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0408187 Cook, K.S., Emerson, R.M., Gilmore, M.R. and Yamagishi, T. (1983) ‘The distribution of power in exchange networks: Theory and experimental results’, American Journal of Sociology, 89: 275-305. Covar, Prospero R. (1975) The Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi: An Anthropological Study of a Social Movement in the Philippines. A Dissertation Submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Tucson (Ari.), University of Arizona. Endaya, I.C. (1994) "Altar" by Jose D. Caancan (Rizal’s student in Dapitan). In CCP Encyclopedia of Philippine Art, 1st ed., Vol. 4, 323. Philippines: CCP Publications Office. Fadul, Jose (2002/2008) A Workbook for a Course in Rizal. Manila: De La Salle University Press. ISBN 971-555-426-1 /C&E Publishing. ISBN 978-971-584-648-6. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, J. (1900) A History of Spanish Literature. New York: Appleton and Company. Friedkin, N.E. (1998) A Structural Theory of Social Influences. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Garcia, Mauro (1961) 'Translations of Mi Ultimo Adios, ' in Historical Bulletin Manila. Philippine Historical Association. Guerrero, Leon Ma. (2007) The First Filipino. Manila: National Historical Institute of the Philippines (1962); Guerrero Publishing. ISBN 971-93418-2-3. Hessel, Dr. Eugene A. (1965) Rizal 's Retraction: A Note on the Debate. Silliman University Jalosjos, Romeo G. (ed.) (2007) The Dapitan Correspondence of Dr. Jose Rizal and Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt. The City Government Dapitan City: Philippines. ISBN 978-971-93553-0-4. Joaquin, Nick (1977) A Question of Heroes: Essays and criticisms on ten key figures of Philippine History. Manila: Ayala Museum. Lazarsfeld, P.F. and Merton, R.K. (1954) ‘Friendship as social process: A substantive and methodological analysis’, in P.L. Kendall (ed.) ,The Varied Sociology of Paul F. Lazarsfeld. New York: Columbia University Press. Lin, Nan (2001) Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52167-3. 12 Ludva, Jaroslav (2006). Mi último adiós - Poslední rozloučení. The Embassy of the Czech Republic in Manila. Mapa, Christian Angelo A.(1993) The Poem of the Famous Young Elder Jose Rizal McPherson, M., Smith-Lovin, L., and Cook , J.M. (2001) ‘Birds of a feather: Homophily in social network’, Annual Review of Sociology, 27:415-44. Medina, Elizabeth (1998) Rizal According to Retana: Portrait of a Hero and a Revolution. Santiago, Chile: Virtual Multimedia. ISBN 956-7483-09-4. Mercken, L., Snijders, T.A.B., Steglich, C., and Vriesa, H.D. (2009) ‘Dynamics of adolescent friendship networks and smoking behavior: social network analysis in six European countries’, Social Science & Medicine, 69: 1506-14. Moreno, Jacob L. (1953) Who shall survive? Foundations of sociometry, group psychotherapy and sociodrama . Beacon, NY: Beacon House. Ocampo, Ambeth R. (2008) Rizal without the Overcoat. Pasig: Anvil Publishing. Ocampo, Ambeth R. (2001) Meaning and history: The Rizal Lectures. Pasig: Anvil Publishing. Ocampo, Ambeth R. (1993) Calendar of Rizaliana in the vault of the National Library. Pasig: Anvil Publishing. Ocampo, Ambeth R.(1992) Makamisa: The Search for Rizal’s Third Novel. Pasig: Anvil Publishing. Palma, Rafael (1949) The Pride of the Malay Race. Tr. from original Spanish (Biografía de Rizal) by Roman Ozaeta. New York: Prentice-Hall. Quirino, Carlos (1997) The Great Malayan. Makati City: Tahanan Books. ISBN 971-630-085-9. Republic of the Philippines. CHED Memorandum Order No. 2, series of 2011, specifying that the Revised General Education Curriculum will have 36 units for all students regardless of major. Rizal, Jose. (1889) ‘Sa mga Kababayang Dalaga ng Malolos’ in Escritos Politicos y Historicos de Jose Rizal (1961). Manila: National Centennial Commission. Robins, G., Elliot, P. and Pattison, P. (2001) ‘Network models for social selection processes’, Social Networks, 23: 1-30. Runes, Ildefonso (1962) The Forgery of the Rizal Retraction. Manila: Community Publishing Co. Thomas, Megan C. (2012) Orientalists, Propagandists, and “Ilustrados”: Filipino Scholarship and the End of Spanish Colonialism. University of Minnesota Press. Tomas, Jindřich (1998) Jose Rizal, Ferdinand Blumentritt and the Philippines in the New Age. The City of Litomerice: Czech Republic. Publishing House Oswald Praha (Prague). Venzon, Jahleel Areli A. (1994) The Doorway to hell, Rizal’s Biography. Watts, D. J. (1999) Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks Between Order and Randomness. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00541-9. Zaide, Gregorio F. (2003) Jose Rizal: Life, Works and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist and National Hero. Manila: National Bookstore. ISBN971-08-0520-7. 13

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