Social Learning Theory
The social learning theory was developed by Albert Bandura, this theory suggests that behaviour is learned through observation and imitation. It also says that learning is a cognitive process that will take place in a social context. Bandura believes that humans are active information processors and think about the relationship between their behaviour and its consequences. Observational learning could not occur unless cognitive processes were at work. According to this theory, we are also more likely to copy someone if they are rewarded for their actions, this is known as vicarious reinforcement. Albert Bandura combines both behavioural and cognitive philosophies to form this theory of modelling, or observational learning. He sees the human personality as an interaction between the environment and a person's psychological processes. Bandura had created 2 experiments to explain the social learning theory. Children in the experiment saw adults beating up a Bobo doll in a video. Some of the adults were rewarded, some were punished, and some received no consequence for the behaviour. Bandura demonstrated that while the children who saw the adults being rewarded for beating up the doll were more likely to later repeat the behaviour. These experiments were called the Bobo Doll Experiments 1961. Bandura, Ross, and Ross 1961 carried out a study where there were 3 groups of children. Before this experiment, “The researchers pre-tested the children for how aggressive they were by observing the children in the nursery and judged their aggressive behaviour on four 5-point rating scales. It was then possible to match the children in each group so that they had similar levels of aggression in their everyday behaviour. The experiment is therefore an example of a matched pairs design” according to http://www.simplypsychology.org/bobo-doll.html. Group 1 – This group of children watched a adult behaving aggressively towards a bobo doll. (This would include the adult punching the doll, and hitting it with a hammer) Group 2- Saw the doll previously, but no model playing with it. Group 3- Saw an adult playing with the bobo doll in a non aggressive manner. After 10 minutes the children were moved to another room where there were some toys, including a hammer and a bobo doll. They were then observed through a one way mirror to see how they behaved with the doll. The result where that group 1 had copied the behaviour of the model, and then would was playing aggressively towards the bobo doll. Group 2 and 3 then copied the other behaviour of their model and did not play with the doll aggressively. This study did then provide support for Bandura’s social learning theory and children do learn though watching and replying. Bandura later clarified that there are four key cognitive methods at work amid observational learning. In the first place, you must be paying consideration on the conduct of the individual who is demonstrating the activities. Next, you have to have the capacity to recall the conduct that was exhibited. Third, you must have the capacity to transform your perceptions into activities that you have the capacity to rehash. At last, you have to be spurred to mimic the conduct you watched prior. Along these lines, you are much more inclined to perform an activity in the event that you saw another person being remunerated for the same conduct. Health behaviours are any behaviour you do that can either increase your health or decrease your health. The principles of social learning can explain how people may acquire undesirable health behaviours such as smoking. Things that could increase your health is:
Things that could have a negative effect on your health is:
Lack of eating
The Application of the Behaviourist Perspective to smoking
When we do something that brings a pleasant, wanted or satisfying consequences, the tendency to...
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