Social Construction & Proactive vs. Reactive Approaches

Topics: Sociology, Criminology, Crime Pages: 5 (1772 words) Published: May 21, 2012
Social Construction & Proactive vs. Reactive Approaches:

I am writing my essay to discuss Social Construction. Social Construction is a study of Theories In our modern society; developments in technology and science have driven the study of crime into new frontiers. While the definite study of crime dates back to earlier decades, these developments have put crime data and the study of it into the front position of our society. Criminologists dedicate their life to assessing, understanding, restraining, and helping lawmakers to stop criminal and deviant acts. Not all criminal acts are deviant, and equally all deviant acts are not criminal. Serial killers with the nature of their crimes cross both groups due to the violence connected with the crimes, the repetition of the crimes, and the deviant nature of most serial killers even though the certain deviance varies per killer. These can contain but are not limited to cannibalism, dismemberment, necrophilia, and aggression. Criminological Theories that began in the mid 1800’s have been advanced and tested over time. With each new advance in technology, the means of testing these theories become more exact. In this essay I will discuss the numerous Social Construction Theories that today’s criminal justice system practices to control and stop criminals such as serial killers from committing their crimes. These theories consist of the social structure, social class, social process, neutralization, social control, and labeling theories (Siegel, L., 2008). The first theory I will discuss is the Social Structure Theory. The Social Structure Theory reasons that the socioeconomic forces drive those in underprivileged financial situations to commit crime, and this being the reason for crime. This theory breaks down into three smaller theories, which are: Social Disorganization Theory, Strain Theory, and the Cultural Deviance Theory. Social disorganization theory primarily focuses on environmental conditions. Excessive unemployment and school dropout rates are a result of this problem in a neighborhood. Strain Theory suggests that conflict in the goals a person has and what actual means one has to attain that goal is the main reason for crime (Siegel, L., 2008). Richard Ramirez fits into this theory for the reason that he started his killing over disappointment that a woman did not have anything of value to steal which was how he supported himself. His first murder was just a burglary gone twisted. He then went on to the next year growing into a serial killer claiming twelve more lives in the period of one year (Montaldo, C., n.d.). Cultural Deviance Theory is due to burden and social separation of people in lower class areas improving their own subcultures, which do not follow to social rules. An example, dad is a drunk, and hangs out with other lower class drunks. These drunks think that it is perfectly normal to abuse their wives. Because they are all of the same association they reassure themselves that their behavior is normal. Though the Strain Theory might work in relation to some serial killers, generally, it does not appear that social structure theories work well in relation to all serial killers (Siegel, L., 2008). The next theory of a serial killer that I will discuss is the Social Class Theory (also known as the Anomie Theory). This group of serial killers opposes that social judgment causes awareness, which in turn causes crime. For example: the lower class worker feels stress because they cannot meet the expense of the things they need. They then turn to dealing drugs to reach the means to achieve social equity. The Social Class Theory is also broken down into three smaller theories, such as: Institutional Anomie Theory, Relative Deprivation Theory, and the General Strain Theory. The Institutional Anomie Theory states that because of our nonstop need to keep up the status quote the United States is full of social class. Relative Deprivation Theory states that...
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