Running head: SMOKING CESSATION
Smoking Cessation in Pregnant Women
Sinclair Community College
Nursing 230 – 02
Smoking during pregnancy causes long term effects on the unborn child. More than 10% of pregnant women smoke in the United States today (American Cancer Society, 2007), and in some geographical areas that number is as high as 39% (Bailey, 2006). Managing smoking cessation during the prenatal period is a challenge that health practitioners are faced with. Different options are discussed herein, along with contributing factors to the success of smoking cessation in the child bearing population.
Mothers who smoke during pregnancy place their unborn infants at increased risk for numerous irreversible health conditions. Smoking during pregnancy is the cause of 20% of all low-birth weight infants (American Cancer Society, 2007). For babies born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy, the risk of sudden infant death syndrome increases. As many as 10% of all infant deaths could be prevented if pregnant women did not smoke (American Cancer Society, 2007). Maternal smoking is associated with many other long-term health problems in children, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, criminal behavior, and substance abuse (Mann, 2007). Childhood growth restriction, abnormal neuromotor tone, increased respiratory infections, asthma, otitis media, and obesity are other lasting effects of prenatal cigarette exposure (Bailey, 2007). Because of these acquired health delays, children grow to become smaller in height and sometimes weight than those children of women who did not smoke during the prenatal period (American Lung Association, 2007).
The unborn infant is not only put at risk if the mother smokes during pregnancy, but also if the nonsmoking mother is exposed to environmental tobacco smoke while pregnant. Infants born to women who are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy have...
References: American Cancer Society (2007). You are Not Alone.
American Lung Association (2007)
Bailey BA. (2006). Factors predicting pregnancy smoking in southern Appalachia. American Journal of Health Behavior, 30(4), 413-421.
Benowitz, N. L., & Dempsey, A. (2004). Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation during pregnancy. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 6, S189.
Department of Health and Human Services (2002). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; Division of Reproductive Health; State Prenatal Smoking Databook, 1999.
Jordan TR, ., Dake JA, ., & Price JH, . (2006). Best practices for smoking cessation in pregnancy: do obstetrician/gynecologists use them in practice? Journal of Women 's Health (15409996), 15(4), 400-411.
Mann, J. R., McKeown, R. E., Bacon, J., Vesselinov, R., & Bush, F. (2007). Religiosity, Spirituality, and Tobacco Use by Pregnant Women. Southern Medical Journal, 100(9), 867-872.
Pollak KI, ., Baucom DH, ., Palmer CA, ., Peterson BL, ., Østbye T, ., & Stanton S, . (2006). Couples ' reports of support for smoking cessation predicting women 's late pregnancy cessation. American Journal of Health Promotion, 21(2), 90-96.
Rosenthal, A. C., Melvin, C. L., & Barker, D. C. (2006). Treatment of Tobacco Use in Preconception Care. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 10, 147-148.
Solomon LJ, ., Higgins ST, ., Heil SH, ., Badger GJ, ., Mongeon JA, ., & Bernstein IM, . (2006). Psychological symptoms following smoking cessation in pregnant smokers. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 29(2), 151-160.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (2005). Helping Smokers Quit: A Guide for Nurses [Electronic version]. Retrieved January 23, 2008, from http://ahrq.gov/about/nursing/hlpsmksqt.htm
Please join StudyMode to read the full document