Smoking and alcohol use among college students remains the prominent problem in different colleges and universities in the country today. National survey results indicate that 4o percent of college students engaged in smoking and drinking alcohol. According to Windle (2003) smoking and alcohol use among college students is associated with a broad array risk behaviors, including tobacco use and drinking and driving. In addition, studies on college campuses have shown that students who do not smoke and drink nevertheless experience adverse secondhand effects of smoking and drinking, including victimization (e.g. verbal or physical threats and actions) and personal intrusion (e.g., disruption of sleep or study habits) by those who have been smoking and drinking (Wechsler et al 1998). Another disturbing trend in youth smoking and drinking is the initiation of cigarette and alcohol use at younger ages. Between 1997 and 2006, surveys have shown that the average age of initiation to cigarette and alcohol use decreased by more than 1.5 years, from 17.8 years in 1997 to 15.9 years in 2006 (Office of National drug Control Policy, 2007). In 2007, more than 32 percent of young people reported beginning to smoke and drink before age of 13 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007). Earlier initiation of smoking and alcohol use has been associated with increased risk for smoking and alcohol-related problems later in life particularly on health (Grant and Dawson, 2007). Aside from the immediate health risks involved in these actions, as well as the fact that these actions are illegal, cigarettes and alcohol are gateway drugs that can and often do lead to other drugs and other serious risk taking behaviors among students. Those who smoke and drink alcohol are more likely to engaged in pre-marital sexual relations (heterosexual and homosexual), more likely to struggle in school and have difficult in their relations with their parents (National Institute of Health, 2007). This research paper will be conducted to find out the smoking and alcohol use among college students particularly the fourth year Bachelor of Science in Criminology of the University of Antique.
Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework of the Study
This study was anchored on Cappell and Greeley (20050 Tension-Reduction Theory of smoking and drinking which asserts that drinker’s expectations about alcohol’s efficacy can reduce tension. According to this theory, tension reduction is more apparent in smoking and alcoholic drinking than in normal drinking. Overall it can offer pleasure and satisfaction to the individuals. This study also based on the personality theory of Cox (2004) which stressed that several dimensions of personality have repeatedly appeared to underlie problem of smoking and drinking. For example, antisocial impulsivity has been strongly implicated in problem of smoking and alcoholism drinking among men. Palliation of negative emotional state is somewhat less clearly tied to smoking and alcoholism, although it is more important for women’s drinking than men. Overall the concept of personality theory emphasized that “people are motivated to drink alcohol in order to control their positive and negative affective states”. Figure 1 Depicts the Paradigm if the Study
Smoking and Alcohol use
Figure 1. The Paradigm of the Study
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to find out the smoking and alcohol use among fourth year BSCRIM students of the University of Antique for academic year 2014-2015 Specifically, it will seek answers to the following questions: 1.How frequent do the fourth year BSCRIM students smoke when they are taken as an entire group and when they are classified according to section, age and gender? 2.How frequent do the fourth year BSCRIM students use alcoholwhen they are taken as an entire group and when they are classified according to section, age and gender?
Significance of the Study
The possible result of this study will be beneficial to the following: School Administrator. The school administrator will be benefited with the findings of this study because they will be aware of the smoking and drinking behavior of their students. This awareness will ignite initiatives on their part to initiate measures to control this kind of behaviors among their students. Guidance Counselor. This study can furnish the guidance counselor important data relative to the implementations of different students’ counseling programs. Through this study, the guidance counselor will be guided on what specific programs to be concentrated to guide the students towards the right path and direction. Teachers. Teachers too can benefit from the results of this study by giving them knowledge and information about smoking and drinking behavior of their students. Thus, this will give teachers ideas and insights on what to do to get rid their students from this influential vices. Parents. Results of this study are very beneficial to parents for this will inform them about smoking ang drinking vices of their children. Thus, it gives them opportunity to take necessary and drastic actions to control those vices and bring their children towards the right path and direction. Students. It is intention of this study to reveal the smoking and alcohol use among students and to delineate the negative effects of these vices and their overall lives. The possible results of this study can be beneficial to students for they will be informed about the negative of smoking and drinking alcohol particularly on their health. This study will serves as their basis in making decision on whether to continue smoking and using alcohol or to quit from these harmful vices.
Scope and Limitations of the Study
This descriptive study aims to find out the smoking and alcohol use among fourth year BSCRIM students of the University of Antique, Sibalom, Antiques.y. 2014-1015. The respondents of the study are 100 randomly selected fourth year BSCRIM students of the University of Antique, Sibalom, Antique. Data will be gathered through the use of questionnaire-checklist constructed by the researchers and duly validated by a jury composed of five members. The frequency, percentage and mean will be employed as statistical tools to interpret the gathered data.
Definition of Terms
To facilitate clear understanding to the different terminologies used in this study, the following terms are defined conceptually and operationally: Smoking. Smoking id the inhalation of the smoke of burning tobacco encased in cigarettes, pipes and cigars (Webster International Dictionary, 2005). In this study, “smoking” refers to the use of cigarettes among the fourth year BSCRIM students of the University of Antique, Sibalom, Antique. Alcohol. Alcohol is one of the toxic liquids usually mixed in alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, brandy and whisky (Webster International Dictionary, 2005). In this study, “alcohol” refers to the use of alcohol drinking amongthe fourth year BSCRIM students of the University of Antique, Sibalom, Antique.