Smart Material

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“SMART MATERIALS”

ABSTRACT The world has undergone two materials ages, the plastics age and the composite age, during the past centuries. In the midst of these two ages a new era has developed. This is the smart materials era. According to early definitions, smart materials are materials that respond to their environments in a timely manner. The definition of smart materials has been expanded to materials that receive, transmit or process a stimulus and respond by producing a useful effect that may include a signal that the materials are acting upon it.Smart materials cover a wide and developing range of technologies. A particular type of smart material, known as chromogenics, can be used for large areaglazing in buildings, automobiles, planes, and for certain types of electronic display.
Smart materials have been around for many years and they have found a large number of applications. There are many types of the materials present some of them listed below:
Shape memory alloy 2) Piezoelectric materials 3) Magnetostrictive materials 4) Magneto- and electro-rheological materials 5) Chromic materials
Due to the property of responding quickly with environment and many applications in daily life smart materials deserve a great future scope.

I. INTRODUCTION
Smart materials have been around for many years and they have found a large number of applications. The use of the terms 'smart ' and 'intelligent ' to describe materials and systems came from the US and started in the 1980‟s despite the fact that some of these so-called smart materials had been around for decades. Many of the smart materials were developed by government agencies working on military and aerospace projects but in recent years their use has transferred into the civil sector for applications in the construction, transport, medical, leisure and domestic areas.
The first problem encountered with these



References: [1]Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook: Materials and Mechanical Design, Volume 1, Third Edition. Edited by Myer Kutz. [2]www.memorymetals.co.uk [3] www.nitinol.com [4] www.sma-inc.com [5]www.cs.ualberta.ca/~database/MEMS/sma_mems/sma.html [6]http://virtualskies.arc.nasa.gov/research/youdecide/Shapememalloys.html

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