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Sleep Deprivation

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Topics: Sleep
I. Introduction
Almost all students aim to have a good performance and high grades in school. They do everything for them to meet their aspiration. Some students are buying expensive books, some are hiring tutorials, and the others are burning their midnight candles and having sleepless nights in studying. According to National Sleep Foundation cited by Amanda Grove, it is recommended to sleep 7 to 9 hours per night for adults, and 8 to 9 hours range with young adults such as college students. Very few college students get enough sleep today. This is due to many demands on their time such as classes, homework, jobs, etc. and also the social environment that encourages staying up late. Those students who are sleep deprived are possibly affecting their academic performance. According to the study conducted by James F. Pagel, MD, of the University Of Colorado School Of Medicine, it was found that insufficient sleep can have an adverse effect the next day not only on an adult 's work performance but also on how well students perform at school. He stated that Adolescents who experience sleep disturbances are more likely to receive bad grades (http://www.psyarticles.com/ sleep/adolescent-sleep.htm, 2010). Whereas in other study, they found out that there is no significant relationship between any aspect of sleep and academic performance (Gomes, Ana Allen; Tavares, José; Azevedo, et.al cited from Shapiro et al. 1980). With regard to this uncertainty, a study conducted to find out whether sleep deprivation really affects the academic performance of the students or not. This study will provide information about the present condition of Visayas State University-Alangalang Campus students with regard to sleep deprivation. Accordingly, it will be valuable for the awareness of VSU-AC Students. II. Objectives:
1. To determine the relationship between lack of sleep and academic performance of college students
2. To determine the effect of lack of sleep on academic performance of the college students III. Definition of terms: Lack of sleep -refers to the time of not completing the enough number of hours of sleeping. Academic performance - how well a student is accomplishing his or her tasks and studies. IV. Conceptual Framework

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

V. Review of Literature

The Link between Sleep Quantity and Academic Performance for the College Student The results of their study support their hypothesis. Quality of sleep, as assessed by the Groninger Sleep Quality Questionnaire, did not show a significant relationship with academic performance. However, quantity of sleep was significantly related. The average amount of sleep a student receives per night does seem to be tied to the students’ GPA.
Also, an increased number of nights in an average week that the student obtains less than five hours of sleep (our measure of sleep deprivation) seem to be negatively related to GPA. These results pertaining to sleep deprivation are in agreement with past research. Our data support Pilcher and Huffcutt 's (1996) statement that sleep deprivation affects cognitive processes. As noted earlier, sleep deprivation was defined by Pilcher and Huffcutt (1996) to be functioning with less than five hours of sleep from the previous night. However, sleep quality was not correlated with GPA, contrary to past research. For example, Singleton and Wolfson (2009) concluded that alcohol use compromises college students ' GPAs due to the effect of alcohol on sleep quality. Future studies on this topic may be able to attain more reliable information if they administer the sleep quality index to the same students repeatedly. This may offer a more realistic measure of the student 's quality of sleep as a whole rather than a measure of only one night 's sleep which may be an exception to their regular sleep habits. Further research on this topic should use a quota sampling technique. We believe that if this study were carried out in this manner, our hypothesis may be supported.
There were a few students in our study who by our definition were sleep deprived but who still performed academically at a higher level. It is possible that these students may be engaging in more positive behaviors in place of sleep, such as studying. However, these students do not follow the general trend that we found in our study. We found supports for our hypothesis that sleep quantity and academic performance are related. This result holds many practical applications for the college student. Although we cannot conclude from the present study that more sleep causes better grades, we have shown that amount of sleep and academic success are positively correlated (Megan Lowry1, Kayla Dean2, and Keith Manders,.2010).

Sleep Deprivation and School Performance Sleep, a major necessity of a healthy functioning body and mind often get overlooked in children with behavior and school performance problems.
Although there is no one cause to children’s behavior and performance in school, the theory that inadequate sleep affects these continues to be a valid argument.This preliminary study tested the relationship between inadequate sleep and school performance in fifth grade children. In this descriptive correlation study, thirty-three fifth grade children in two Georgia elementary schools between the ages of ten and eleven were asked to assess their sleep using the Sleep Self Report Questionnaire. Teachers were then asked to evaluate their students’ behavior using the Teacher’s Daytime Sleepiness Questionnaire. The results of the study found that there was a moderate positive correlation between the two variables. Inadequate sleep is thought to play a role in behavior and school performance, however further research needs to be done to assess other variables involved in sleep and behavior. Results indicate a moderate positive correlation of student’s sleep to classroom behavior. Findings indicate that the majority of fifth-grade students are often not getting the amount or quality of sleep they need. Many of the students rated their sleep as inadequate as evidenced by a high score on the SSR questionnaire.
For most students, the teacher had few or no problems with the student in the classroom, which leads to suggest a limitation of the study. Many of the behaviors being measured on the TDSQ may be influenced by other factors other than sleep. Although this research suggests a moderate positive correlation of sleep and classroom behavior, the limitations may have skewed the results. A few areas to focus on for a better correlation in future research is better control, a bigger sample size and a broader geographical area of students included in the study. Measuring sleep and school performance over time would also suggest better validity. Due to the lack of education provided to children and their parents, many people are unaware of the consequences of inadequate sleep. People are also unaware of the benefits of sleep on a person’s health. Further education should be emphasized in schools and in doctor’s offices starting at a young age (Hayley Mitchell, Danielle Breedlove, and Erin Askew., 2010).

Sleep-wake patterns and academic performance in university students Apparently, the relationships between sleep, circadian rhythms, and academic performance, in students, have received little attention by practitioners and researchers in the field of education. The aim of this work was to perform a literature review about this issue in university students. A computer search and published literature consultation, to locate relevant articles, were conducted. Although vast literature reports associations between sleep and performance, articles specifically interested on academic performance were sparse. Despite the reduced number of studies, the findings suggest that several sleep dimensions, as sleep-wake schedules, and individual circadian rhythms characteristics, may be associated to the academic results achieved by university students. Given the reduced number of studies found, further research is needed. Since sleep-wake patterns may have important implications over daytime functioning, we are undertaking the first Portuguese study with university students in this specific research issue (Gomes, Ana Allen (1); Tavares, José (1); Azevedo, Maria Helena (2)., 2002).

The Relationship of University Students’ Sleep Habits and Academic Motivation College students are sleeping less during the week than reported a few years ago. Lack of sleep among college students has been identified as one of the top three-health related impediments to academic performance by the American College Health Association’s National College Health Assessment survey; and it is associated with lower grades, incompletion of courses, as well as negative moods. This research examines the underlying dynamics of lack of sleep on academic motivation, a key predictor of academic performance. Specifically, the relationship of sleep habits with self-efficacy, performance versus mastery goal orientation, persistence, and tendency to procrastinate were investigated. Findings indicate that 42% of the participants (159 students out of a total of 377) experience excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS); and those identified with EDS tend: (1) to be motivated by performance goals rather than mastery goals; (2) to engage in procrastination (a self-handicapping strategy) to a greater extent than students who are rested; and (3) to have decreased self-efficacy, as compared to students not reporting EDS. Several recommendations for campus health professionals to consider for a Healthy Campus Initiative are made based on the findings (Edens, Kellah M., 2010).
Sleep Quality and Academic Performance in University Students: A Wake-Up Call for College Psychologists Both sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality are prominent in American society, especially in college student populations. Sleep problems are often a primary disorder rather than secondary to depression. The purpose of the present study was to determine if sleep deprivation and/or poor sleep quality in a sample of nondepressed university students was associated with lower academic performance. A significant negative correlation between Global Sleep Quality score (GSQ) on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and grade point average supports the hypothesis that poor sleep quality is associated with lower academic performance for nondepressed students. Implications for both the remedial (assessment and treatment) and preventive (outreach) work of college and university counseling centers is discussed (Steven P. Gilberta; Cameron C. Weaver., 2010). Lack Of Sleep Affects School Results A study by James F. Pagel, MD, of the University of Colorado School of Medicine, published earlier this year in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine has found that insufficient sleep can have an adverse effect the next day not only on an adult 's work performance but also on how well students perform at school. Adolescents who experience sleep disturbances are more likely to receive bad grades. Based on 238 questionnaires completed by middle or high school students, the survey found that those with lower grade point averages (GPA) were more likely to experience restless, aching legs when trying to fall asleep, snoring every night, a hard time waking up in the morning, difficulty concentrating during the day, and falling asleep in class (Pagel, James F., 2007). James Pagel said: "While a series of previously-conducted studies all found that adolescents reporting inadequate sleep, irregular sleep patterns, and/or poor sleep quality do not perform as well in school as students without sleep complaints, this study provides additional evidence indicating that sleep disturbances occur at high frequencies in adolescents and significantly affect daytime performance, as measured by GPA." Lack of sleep due to school, extracurriculars affects students’ performance It may seem as if extracurricular activities, copious amounts of homework and Facebook conspire together to inhibit one’s ability to fall asleep. To make matters worse, teenagers need the same amount of sleep as they did in elementary school, when life was simpler and devoid of distractions. According to sleepfoundation.org, teenagers require on average more than nine hours of sleep each night. In a survey of Paly students, it was found that students on average get seven hours of sleep each school night. While more sleep does not necessarily equate to better grades, students who receive a sufficient amount of sleep each night will most likely feel less lethargic during their morning classes, be more focused and less prone to fall asleep during class (Andrea More .,2011 cited from Lauren Wong) Research from a Harvard University sleep study suggests that learning and memory can significantly affect one’s academic life. The study also concluded that consolidation of memory can be disadvantaged if sufficient sleep is not obtained, making it difficult to learn new information (Andrea More ., 2011 cited from Lauren Wong).

The Impact of Sleepiness Levels on Academic Achievement for College Students College students are notorious for their sleep deprivation; however, does this lack of sleep affect their academic performance? The present study hypothesized that the sleepiness of fulltime college students aged 18 to 23 would negatively correlate with their cumulative college GPA. The 47 participants completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and their grade point averages were obtained from the Registrar. The data were analyzed using Pearson r with a significance level of .05. The r obtained was compared to the critical r and no significant difference between the variables was found. Therefore the null hypothesis was retained. Future studies should be based on long-term more objective tests of sleepiness rather than self-report (Jessica Flood, Becky Brensinger, Stacie Cheek., 2008).

VI. Methodology
The researcher will administer a convenience sample of 50 surveys to undergraduate students on the Visayas State University Alangalang Campus. The participants consisted of 30 males and 30 females. The researcher will choose his sample randomly so everyone has a chance to be a participants.The students who agreed to participate in the study signed an approval form, and these students then proceede to answer the questionnaires. The survey questionnaire contained 30 questions related to sleep quanlity, sleep deprivation and their academic success. The first ten(10) questions were taken from the Groninger Sleep Quality Questionnaire (Leppamaki, Meesters, Haukka, Lonnqvist, &Partonen, 2003) with response choices of true or false, measuring the student 's sleep quanlity. Three(3) questions (21-23) were taken from the questionaires made byMegan Lowry1, Kayla Dean2, and Keith Manders(the authors who studied "The Link Between Sleep Quantity and Academic Performance for the College Student") and the others questions were created by the researcher and assessed the student 's level of partial sleep deprivation and quantity of sleep during the past week as well as in an average week. The 3 questions are open-ended questions with the expectation of whole numerical values in order to measure the student 's sleep deprivation habits. The second page of the survey included a question that assessed academic success by inquiring about the student 's General Point Average (GPA). If the students don 't know their GPA, the researcher has an alternative way in order for him to know their present GPA, which is by getting information in the registrar 's office of the campus, but the researcher will ask first permission to the participants and tell them that only the researcher will see their GPA in order to preserve their anonymity. Also in the questionnaire, the students were asked not to identify themselves to preserve anonymity. Data will be collected during their vacant time so that it will not affect their regular class. The participants were then thanked for their participation in the study.
VII. Instrument In gathering data, the researcher will use “questionnaire and interview” and some of those are self-administered structured questionnaire. VIII. Bibliography:
Gilbert, Steven P. and Weaver, Cameron C. “Sleep Quality and Academic Performance in University Students: A Wake-Up Call for College Psychologists “http://www.informa world .com/smpp/content~db=all ~content =a927261637. [March 14, 2011]
Gomes, Ana Allen ; Tavares, José ; Azevedo, Maria Helena. “Sleep-wake patterns and academic performance in university students”.http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents /00002200.htm.Portugal. [March 16, 2011]
Jessica Flood, Becky Brensinger, Stacie Cheek.; “The Impact of Sleepiness Levels on Academic Achievement for College Students Huntington University”.http://www.kon.org/urc/v7/flood.html .[March 19, 2011]
Kellah M. Edens, “The Relationship of University Students’ Sleep Habits and Academic Motivation”. http://journals.naspa.org/jsarp/vol43/iss3/art4/. Carolina.[March 16, 2011]
Lowry, Megan T.“The Link Between Sleep Quantity and Academic Performance for the College Student” www.psych.umn.edu/sentience/files/Lowry_2010.pdf [March14, 2011]
Mitchell, Hayley B.; Breedlove, Danielle H. et. al. Sleep Deprivation and School Performance.http://www.laran ge.edu/resources/pdf/citations/2009/24N ursing_Mitchell_ Breedlove_Askew.pdf[March 14, 2011]
More, Andrea R., “Lack of sleep due to school, extracurriculars affects students’ performance”. http://voice.paly.net/node/26402.[March 16, 2011]
Pagel, James F., “Lack Of Sleep Affects School Results”.http://www.psyarticles.com/sleep/adolescent-sleep.htm. [March 14,2011]
Weber, Dianne G., “Lack of sleep affects college students’ performance: Grades, athletics suffer from too many ‘all-nighters”.http://www.uwex.edu/ces/news/cenews.cfm? ID=3307. [March 14, 2011]
“College students ' performance suffers from lack of sleep”. http://www.usatoday.com /news/health/2007-09-16-sleep-deprivation_N.htm. [March 16, 2011]
“Students and Sleep Deprivation”. http://www.healthtree.com/articles/sleep-disorders /cau ses /students/ cited fromhttp://healthed.tamu.edu/pdfs/General/sleep.pdf. [March 19, 2011]
Questionaire
You are being asked to participate in a study as part of a class project in a Social Study course at the Visayas State University – Alangalang Campus. It involves better understanding how sleep may have an effect on student life. If you choose to participate, no identifying information will be gathered from you, so it will be impossible to identify you as a participant. If you choose to participate, you may stop participating at any time. You may withdraw your data at any time, including after you have completed the study. You may ask me questions before or after you complete the study. SECTION 1: PLEASE CIRCLE “TRUE” OR “FALSE”.
1. I had a deep sleep in last five nights.
TRUE FALSE
2. I feel that I slept poorly in last five nights.
TRUE FALSE
3. It took me more than half an hour to fall asleep in last five nights.
TRUE FALSE
4. I woke up several times in last five nights.
TRUE FALSE
5. I felt tired after waking up with these past mornings.
TRUE FALSE
6. I feel that I didn 't get enough sleep in last five nights.
TRUE FALSE
7. I got up in the middle of the night.
TRUE FALSE
8. I felt rested after waking up with these last five mornings.
TRUE FALSE
9. I feel that I only had a couple of hours ' sleep in last five nights.
TRUE FALSE
10. I feel that I slept well in last five nights.
TRUE FALSE
11. I didn 't sleep a wink in last five nights.
TRUE FALSE
12. I didn 't have trouble falling asleep in last five nights.
TRUE FALSE
13. After I woke up last night, I had trouble falling asleep again.
TRUE FALSE
14. I tossed and turned all night last night.
TRUE FALSE
15. I didn 't get more than 5 hours ' sleep last night.
TRUE FALSE
16. Do you need a nap to get through most days?
TRUE FALSE
17. Do you have trouble falling asleep?
TRUE FALSE
18. Do you have trouble staying asleep?
TRUE FALSE
19. Do you wake too early or wake, still feeling tired?
TRUE FALSE
20. Do you usually fall asleep within a couple of minutes of getting into bed?
TRUE FALSE
SECTION 2: PLEASE ANSWER EACH QUESTION WITH A WHOLE NUMBER ON THE LINE PROVIDED.
21. In an average week, how many nights do you get less than five hours of sleep? _____________
22. In the past week, how many nights did you get less than five hours of sleep? _____________
23. In an average night, how many hours of sleep do you get? ________
24. How many are hours you spend in sleeping with last five nights.________
SECTION 3: PLEASE ANSWER THE QUESTIONS HONESTLY. ENCIRCLE YOUR ANSWER.
26. Are you able to understand what your teachers discussed to you even you didn’t sleep well.
YES NO 27. Can you get high scores even you’re not sleep well? YES NO 28. For you, are you good in class? YES NO
29. With your last quiz, did you get a passing score? YES NO 30. What is your GPA? (note: this information is confidential)____ ______

Informed Consent The purpose of the present study is to understand how to better facilitate learning for college students. The involvement in this research study is voluntary, and you may withdraw from it at any time with no penalty. The survey will only take about 5-10 minutes to complete. Through signing this form, you are allowing the researcher to obtain your cumulative college GPA from the Registrar’s Office. The record of your GPA will remain confidential. Thank you! ________________________ Participants Signature

Bibliography: Jessica Flood, Becky Brensinger, Stacie Cheek.; “The Impact of Sleepiness Levels on Academic Achievement for College Students Huntington University”.http://www.kon.org/urc/v7/flood.html .[March 19, 2011] Kellah M Lowry, Megan T.“The Link Between Sleep Quantity and Academic Performance for the College Student” www.psych.umn.edu/sentience/files/Lowry_2010.pdf [March14, 2011] Mitchell, Hayley B.; Breedlove, Danielle H More, Andrea R., “Lack of sleep due to school, extracurriculars affects students’ performance”. http://voice.paly.net/node/26402.[March 16, 2011] Pagel, James F., “Lack Of Sleep Affects School Results”.http://www.psyarticles.com/sleep/adolescent-sleep.htm Weber, Dianne G., “Lack of sleep affects college students’ performance: Grades, athletics suffer from too many ‘all-nighters”.http://www.uwex.edu/ces/news/cenews.cfm? ID=3307. [March 14, 2011] “College students ' performance suffers from lack of sleep” “Students and Sleep Deprivation”. http://www.healthtree.com/articles/sleep-disorders /cau ses /students/ cited fromhttp://healthed.tamu.edu/pdfs/General/sleep.pdf. [March 19, 2011] Questionaire

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