Skeletal, Muscular & Articular Systems

Topics: Muscle, Muscular system, Human anatomy, Skeletal system, Vertebral column, Pelvis / Pages: 16 (3911 words) / Published: Apr 22nd, 2013
|Skeletal, Articular and Muscular Systems |
|Human Anatomy & Physiology Assignment 6 |
|A short study of the human bodies skeletal, muscular and joint types. |

Contents
Task 1 2
Task 2 3
Task 3a 8
Task 3b 0
Task 4a 10
Task 5a 10
Task 6a 11
Task 6b 14
References 16
Pictures/Figures 16

Task 1

Task 1A

A patient with a bone mineral density T-score of -2.7 would be suffering from osteoporosis.

• Normal BMD, T-score -1 SD>

• Osteopenia, T-score between -1 & -2.5 SD><

• Osteoporosis, T-score -2.5 SD<

• Severe Osteoporosis, T-score -2.5 SD< with associated fractures.[1]

Task 1B

Key hormones associated with bone formation in men/women are PTH (parathyroid hormone) produced by the parathyroid glands, and Calcitonin produced by C-cells. In children, HGH is important and is most involved in epiphyseal plate activity; in adolescents the sex hormones testosterone and oestrogen play an important role in bone growth, growth hormone (HGH) is modulated by the activity of the thyroid hormones, ensuring that the skeleton has proper proportions as it is growing.

Later in adolescence, the sex hormones testosterone and oestrogen induce epiphyseal plate closure in the long bones; an excess of growth hormone during this development phase can lead to gigantism, while a deficiency of HGH and/or the thyroid hormones would produce dwarfism.

Low blood levels of ionic calcium will stimulate the release of PTH; in turn stimulating osteoclasts to resorb bone and thus releasing more calcium to the blood. Osteoclasts will break down both old and new



References: Marieb, E.N. & Hoehn, K., 2010. Bones and Skeletal Tissue. In A. Wagner, ed. Human Anatomy & Physiology. 8th ed. San Francisco: Pearson International Ltd. pp.185-86. Marieb, E.N. & Hoehn, K., 2010. Bones and Skeletal tissue. In A. Wagner, ed. Human Anatomy & Physiology. 8th ed. San Francisco: Pearson International Ltd. pp.199,216. Marieb, E.N. & Hoehn, K., 2010. Bones and Skeletal Tissue. In A. Wagner, ed. Human Anatomy & Physiology. 8th ed. San Francisco: Pearson International Ltd. pp.223,233,237. Marieb, E.N. & Hoehn, K., 2010. Covering, Support and Movement of the Body. In A. Wagner, ed. Human Anatomy and Physiology. 8th ed. San Francisco: Pearson International Ltd. p.284. Marieb, E.N. & Hoehn, K., 2010. Covering, Support and Movement of the Body. In A. Wagner, ed. Human Anatomy & Physiology. 8th ed. San Francisco: Pearson International Ltd. pp.225-226,233,267. Marieb, E.N. & Hoehn, K., 2010. Muscles and Muscle Tissue. In A. Wagner, ed. Human Anatomy and Physiology. 8th ed. San Francisco: Pearson International Ltd. pp.298-99. Marieb, E.N. & Hoehn, K., 2010. The Muscular System. In A. Wagner, ed. Human Anatomy & Physiology. 8th ed. San Francisco: Pearson International Ltd. p.321. Marieb, E.N. & Hoehn, K., 2010. The Vertebral Column. In A. Wagner, ed. Human Anatomy & Physiology. 8th ed. San Francisco: Pearson International. pp.217, 243-244. NHS , 2011. Osteoporosis - Treatment. [Online] Available at: HYPERLINK "http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Osteoporosis/Pages/Treatment.aspx" http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Osteoporosis/Pages/Treatment.aspx [Accessed 13 May 2011]. NHS, 2011. Vitamins and Minerals - Calcium. [Online] Available at: HYPERLINK "http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/vitamins-minerals/Pages/Calcium.aspx" http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/vitamins-minerals/Pages/Calcium.aspx [Accessed 13 May 2011]. Todd, J.A. & Robinson, R.J., 2003. Osteoporosis and Exercise. Postgrad Medical Journal, 4(79), pp.320-23. USA.Gov, 2011. Vitamin D. [Online] Available at: HYPERLINK "http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/" http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/ [Accessed 13 May 2011].

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