Sir Frederick Hopkins

Topics: Polio vaccine, Jonas Salk, Frederick Gowland Hopkins Pages: 5 (1708 words) Published: August 28, 2013
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins
(20 June 1861 – 16 May 1947)
English biochemist
awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929, with Christiaan Eijkman, for the discovery of vitamins. He also discovered the amino acid tryptophan, in 1901.
He was appointed President of the Royal Society from 1930 to 1935. born in Eastbourne, Sussex,
awarded the Royal Medal of the Royal Society in 1918 and the Copley Medal of the Royal Society in 1926. Other significant honours were his election in 1905 to fellowship in the Royal Society, Great Britain’s most prestigious scientific organization; his knighthood by King George V in 1925; and the award in 1935 of the Order of Merit, Great Britain’s most exclusive civilian honor. From 1930 -1935 he served as president of the Royal Society and in 1933 served as President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. In 1912 Hopkins published the work for which he is best known, demonstrating in a series of animal feeding experiments that diets consisting of pure proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, and water fail to support animal growth. This led him to suggest the existence in normal diets of tiny quantities of as yet unidentified substances that are essential for animal growth and survival. These hypothetical substances he called “accessory food factors”, later renamed vitamins.[4] It was this work that led his being awarded (together with Christiaan Eijkman) the 1929 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. During World War I, Hopkins continued his work on the nutritional value of vitamins. His efforts were especially valuable in a time of food shortages and rationing. He agreed to study the nutritional value of margarine and found that it was, as suspected, inferior to butter because it lacked the vitamins A and D. As a result of his work, vitamin-enriched margarine was introduced in 1926. Hopkins is credited with the discovery and characterization in 1921 of glutathione extracted from various animal tissues.[5] At the time he proposed that the compound was a dipeptide of glutamic acid and cysteine. The structure was controversial for many years but in 1929 he concluded that it was a tripeptide of glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine.[6] This conclusion agreed with that from the independent work of Edward Calvin Kendall.[7] In 1906, English biochemist Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins also discovered that certain food factors were important to health. The term vitamin originated from "vitamine," a word first used in 1911 by the Polish scientist Cashmir Funk to designate a group of compounds considered vital for life; each was thought to have a nitrogen-containing component known as an amine. The final e of vitamine was dropped when it was discovered that not all of the vitamins contain nitrogen, and, therefore, not all are amines. The term accessory food factor sometimes is used instead of vitamin to refer to these substances In 1906, English biochemist Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins also discovered that certain food factors were important to health. In 1912, Polish scientist Cashmir Funk named the special nutritional parts of food as a "vitamine" after "vita" meaning life and "amine" from compounds found in the thiamine he isolated from rice husks. Vitamine was later shortened to vitamin. Together, Hopkins and Funk formulated the vitamin hypothesis of deficiency disease - that a lack of vitamins could make you sick. Frederick Hopkins postulated that some foods contained "accessory factors" — in addition to proteins, carbohydrates, fats etc. — that are necessary for the functions of the human body.[5] Hopkins and Eijkman were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1929 for their discovery of several vitamins Among his outstanding contributions to science was his discovery of a method for isolating tryptophan and for identifying its structure. Tryptophan is an amino acid, a protein without which humans could not survive. It comprises one of the...
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