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Determining the Effectivity of Lanzones Peels as Mosquito Coil Against Its Commercial Counterparts

An Investigatory Project
Presented to:
MS. AILENE HIJARA
A Faculty of Science Department
Statefields School, Inc.

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for
CHEMISTRY

by:
CAMILLE FAYE MULI
JINN DINN ORLANDA
JOHN RHEY MITRA
RIGEL KENT RENDON
JONAS TRISTAN TAGUIBAO

August 2013
Chapter I
“The Problem and Its Setting”

Background of the Study Mosquitoes have been the problem of many people for a long time. Therefore, it is important that everyone would take precautionary countermeasures in order to prepare for the rainy season, which is usually the time when insects appear more frequently. And an example of a mosquito repellant is the mosquito coil or more informally known as “katol.” Our group has found out that mosquito coils can be made at home using lanzones peels as repelling agent. But to determine the effectivity of homemade katol, we have proposed to test it out against its commercial counterparts. We will compare if whether or not it is efficient in household usage. By doing this, we will also be able to determine the positive effects of recycling and the safeness of said product.

Statement of the Problem The study seeks to answer this main problem:
How effective is a homemade mosquito coil as an insect repellent when compared to commercial-branded katol? The study seeks to answer the following specific problems:
Can lanzones peels be used to make homemade mosquito coils?
Will the coils be effective as mosquito repellants?
Will it be safe to use?
Is it better than commercial repellents?

Hypotheses It is possible for us to create homemade organic katol out of lanzones as it is said to have properties suitable to repel mosquitoes and the like. As it is used with a foil, we could assume that the mixture will be held together tightly making it safe enough for use, as long as it is kept away from flammables. Before the end of this research, we expect the homemade coils to be effective when used. However, its commercially branded counterparts would probably end up better in quality and performance when compared to our homemade products, considering the fact that the branded ones have chemicals mixed in them which would affect the quality of katol.

Objectives
Main objective:
This research aims to determine and exploit the effectivity of a homemade mosquito coil as an insect repellent and compare it to commercially branded katol.
Specific objectives:
Determine the effectivity of homemade coils made out of lanzones peels.
Determine the effectivity of lanzones when used as material for homemade insect repellant coils.
Determine how safe the homemade coils will be while observing precautionary measures.
Compare its effectivity to other mosquito repellants.

Significance of the Study Mosquito repellants have more complicated compounds that help our mosquito problems. And with this “complicatedness,” there arise more problems than solutions. The group figured out that it’s possible to find a less complicated substance that can lessen the use of harmful chemicals at the same time helping nature cope up with this polluted environment. Aside from figuring out which product is better, this study will also benefit other causes. One example would be to find out if consumers are correct in choosing to buy from markets instead of recycling and using peels of lanzones. This would also help companies to figure out which substances are better suited as mosquito repellants.

Scope and Limitation The research will include a bunch of trials and attempts until the group will get the desired answer. And, as the desired outcome is homemade, the researchers will have to recycle as much as possible and use all available resources to our benefit. The research group has also estimated and allocated a set budget for the research. Though the experiment will be thought as budget-wise, there are limitations to the usage of materials. For example, the experiment may end up with leftovers such as the actual lanzones fruit (as it won’t be used in the research), other coils that are already included in the set of coils beforehand which would probably be not used, and the foil that will be used to keep the peels together to form the coil.

Definition of Terms
Homemade
Flammable
Mosquito
Coils
Repellant
Recycle
Organic
- made or prepared at home, locally, or by the maker's own efforts
- easily set on fire; combustible; inflammable.
- mosquito-repelling incense, usually shaped into a spiral, and typically made from a dried paste of pyrethrum powder
- impervious or resistant to something (often used in combination)
- to treat or process (used or waste materials) so as to make suitable for reuse
- noting or pertaining to a class of chemical compounds that formerly comprised only those existing in or derived from plants or animals, but that now includes all other compounds of carbon

Chapter II

Review of Related Literature Mosquitoes are carriers, or vectors, for some of humanity’s most deadly illnesses, and they are public enemy number one in the fight against global infectious disease. Mosquito-borne diseases cause millions of deaths worldwide every year with a disproportionate effect on children and the elderly in developing countries. An insect repellent is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insects (and arthropods in general) from landing or climbing on that surface. There are also insect repellent products available based on sound production, particularly ultrasound(inaudibly high frequency sounds). These electronic devices have been shown to have no effect as a mosquito repellent by studies done by the EPA and many universities. Insect repellents help prevent and control the outbreak of insect-borne diseases such as malaria, Lyme disease, dengue fever, bubonic plague, and West Nile fever. Pest animals commonly serving as vectors for disease include the insects flea, fly, and mosquito; and the arachnid tick. A mosquito coil is mosquito-repelling incense, usually shaped into a spiral, and typically made from a dried paste of pyrethrum powder. The coil is usually held at the center of the spiral, suspending it in the air, or wedged by two pieces of fireproof nettings to allow continuous smoldering. Burning usually begins at the outer end of the spiral and progresses slowly toward the centre of the spiral, producing a mosquito-repellent smoke. The lanzones seed and rind is rich in tannin and contain chemical substances that are medicinally and industrially useful. Lanzones flesh and juice are used by rural folk to treat sore eyes. The fruit peel serves as a mosquito repellant while the bark is also used for malaria and dysentery patients.

Sources: http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/bugs/mosquito/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insect_repellent http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosquito_coil http://ph.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070908222412AAi06zO

Chapter III
“Methodology”

Materials and Equipments
3 dozens Lanzones peelings
200g C6H10O5 (Starch)
Aluminum Foil
Mortar and Pestle
Small basin/container
Commercially-branded mosquito coil

Controlled Variable
Dependent Variable
Independent Variable
+ Brand of commercial mosquito coil
+ Brand of cornstarch
+ Ratio of cornstarch to lanzones peels
+ Kind of water
+ Amount of lanzones peels and cornstarch
+ Quality of organic homemade mosquito coil compared to that of commercial products
+ Length of time used to test out the mosquito coil

Experimentation/Data Gathering
A.
Dry the lanzones peels under the sun for a few days.
If the lanzones peels are fully dried, pulverize them using a mortar and pastel.
Mix equal amount of starch and pulverized lanzones peeling. Add water to make a paste-like consistency. Mix thoroughly.
Get the commercial katol and use the foil to make a mold.
Pour the mixed starch and lanzones into the mold and let it dry.
Prepare the organic mosquito coils made out of lanzones peels for testing.
B.
Place the lanzones coil in an area that is swarming with mosquitoes.
Lit the coil with a match.
Observe the effectiveness of the coil as a repellant.
C.
Place the commercially branded mosquito coil in the same area where the lanzones coil was tested out in.
Lit the mosquito coil with a match.
Observe the effectiveness of the mosquito coil as a repellant.

Chapter IV
“Results and Discussion”

Observation and Recording
The group was successful in carrying out the task and creating organic katol (mosquito repellant) made out of dried lanzones peels.
The commercially branded mosquito coil was effective in repelling the mosquitoes in the vicinity and making them drowsy.
However, the lanzones coil proved to be more effective in repelling the mosquitoes in the vicinity and making them drowsy.
The lanzones coil did not show any harmful side effects to the other insects such as butterflies nor did it produce a foul odor.
The lanzones coil did not pose any harm nor any threat when used.
The lanzones coil contained terpene and other chemicals that helped in repelling the mosquitoes.
Thus, the mosquito coil was made effective with the use of recycled lanzones peels.
The commercially branded mosquito coil produced a strong scent which the group found irritable to the nose.
The commercially branded mosquito coil posed a possible harm if the lit part was introduced near flammable objects.
Both the commercially branded mosquito coil and the organic mosquito coil left ashes from the parts that were burnt.
Both insect repellants lessened the possibility of being influenced by mosquito-borne disease.
The group proved one of the various uses in which the presence of the lanzones fruit contributed to.

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