Topics: Karst topography, Groundwater, Limestone Pages: 3 (836 words) Published: March 26, 2010
May 25, 2009

The life/types of Sinkholes

Sinkholes are common where the rock below the land surface is limestone carbonate rock salt beds or rocks that can naturally be dissolved by ground water circulating through them. As the rock dissolves, spaces and caverns develop underground. Sinkholes are dramatic because the land usually stays intact for a while until the underground spaces just get too big. If there is not enough support for the land above the space then a sodden collapse can be small or they can be huge and it could occur. The most damage from sinkholes tends to occur in Florida, Texas, Alabama, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee and Pennsylvania. Two processes create three types of sinkholes, which are found through water dissolution or erosion. The Mantled Karst of West Central Florida consists mostly of buried carbonate rock. I will endify the common signs of sinkholes.

Sinkholes can be human induced when natural water drainage patterns are changed and new water diversions systems are developed. Some sinkholes form when the land surface is changed such as when industrial and run-off storage ponds are created. The substantial weight of the new material can trigger an underground collapse of supporting material thus causing a sinkhole.

Three types of sinkholes can be formed the dissolution cover-subsidence and cover collapse are most common in Florida dissolution consist of limestone or dolomite is most intensive where the water first contacts the rock surface aggressive dissolution occurs where flow is focused in pre-existing openings. Cover-subsidence sinkholes tend to form where sediments are permeable cover collapse sinkholes develop abruptly over a period of hours and cause catastrophic damage.

In mantled karst terrane, the buried carbonate rock is fur rowed and pitted. When the recovering deposits subside into the underlying depressions, sinkhole and a hummocky to-pography result. Where karst processes affected rocks that are...
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