Gas at Physical state, liquid under pressure.
Intensely irritating ammoniacal odour, with an odour threshold of 5-53 ppm Soluble in water alcohol and ether.
pH of 11.7
Flammability limit of 15.5-25%
Auto ignition temperature of 651C
Elemental hydrogen and nitrogen gas are abundant and inexpensive. Using temperature 500C and pressure 150-200 atm, iron catalyst.
explosives such as TNT and ammonium nitrate
Used for making ice and air conditioning units
Used as a cleaning agent
Used in pharmaceuticals such as sulphonamide, anti-malaria’s, vitamin B and nicotinamide. Used in annealing steel and extracting zinc and nickel.
Used as a vasodilator
Used in rocket propulsion systems.
Needed mostly for fertilizer and explosives
First commercial plant of 30 tonnes/day set up.
Today the haber process is the base from which all nitrogen containing products are derived. World wide production exceeds 131 million tonnes (2010) sixth largest chemical produced. 1.87 tonnes of CO2 are released per tonne of ammonia produced causing 245 million tonnes of CO2 to be released in 2010.
Modern day costs are higher due to expenses of purifying N2 and H2 to avoid explosions with air.
Classified as a dangerous good and a hazardous substance.
Is a flammable gas which can decompose to reactive hydrogen gas and react explosively with oxygen at high temperatures and pressures. Can react explosively with chlorine and hypochlorites or strong oxidising reagents. Possibility oh hazardous reaction with copper or zinc.
Can cause severe skin burns and eye damage. It is toxic if inhaled by humans and is very toxic to aquatic life, especially fish. Can cause respiratory irritation.
Chronic exposure may cause chemical pneuminitis and kidney damage.
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