Acute kidney failure occurs when your kidneys suddenly become unable to filter waste products from your blood. When your kidneys lose their filtering ability, dangerous levels of wastes may accumulate and your blood's chemical makeup may get out of balance.
Acute kidney failure — also called acute renal failure or acute kidney injury — develops rapidly over a few hours or a few days. Acute kidney failure is most common in people, who are already hospitalized, particularly in critically ill people who need intensive care.
Acute kidney failure can be fatal and requires intensive treatment. However, acute kidney failure may be reversible. If you're otherwise in good health, you may recover normal kidney function.
Signs and symptoms of acute kidney failure may include: • Decreased urine output, although occasionally urine output remains normal • Fluid retention, causing swelling in your legs, ankles or feet • Drowsiness • Shortness of breath • Fatigue • Confusion • Nausea • Seizures or coma in severe cases • Chest pain or pressure
Potential complications of acute kidney failure include: • Fluid buildup. Acute kidney failure may lead to a buildup of fluid in your chest, which can cause shortness of breath. • Chest pain. If the lining that covers your heart becomes inflamed, you may experience chest pain. • Muscle weakness. When your body's fluids and electrolytes — your body's blood chemistry — are out of balance, muscle weakness can result. Elevated levels of potassium in your blood are particularly dangerous. • Permanent kidney damage. Occasionally, acute kidney failure causes permanent loss of kidney function, or end-stage renal disease. People with end-stage renal disease require either permanent dialysis — a mechanical filtration process used to remove toxins and wastes from your body — or a kidney transplant to survive. • Death. Acute kidney failure can lead to loss