Short term and Long term memory studies…
Short Term Study…
I have researched a study into short term memory and found the following information which focuses on encoding. The purpose of this study was to find out whether people are able to have better short-term recall for words alone or pictures and words presented together. For the methods of this project the researchers selected 20 participants at random to form two groups of 10 . The mean age of the participants was 25.3 years old.
One group saw a list of 18 words and the other group saw the pictures with the words next to them (an example shown below). Participants were given one minute to review their items working individually, then there was a thirty second delay period after which they were given one minute to recall the items.
The hypothesis for this study is non-directional, ‘Pictures and words together are likely to be remembered better than words alone‘. This was supported by the results. Overall, the participants were significantly better at remembering the pictures and the words presented together as opposed to the words alone, as shown in the graph below. (Condition A being the group who were studying the pictures and words, and Condition B being the group who were studying just the words). These findings may apply to a number of situations, including teaching methods as well as an aid for studying, for example, a textbook holds a vast amount of information to be remembered, so text is given with a picture to aid the process of information entering the long term memory and helping to put meaning to the information.
The experimental design used in this study is the independent groups design. This design is most suitable as we would be unable to use the same group of participants for each study as they would already know the words and pictures from the previous experiment. This design is particularly good when we are conducting a compare and contrast