• Refers to the perception of touch which distinguishes a wide variety of surface qualities.
Texture can be imaginary.
• It exists as a literal surface we can feel, but also as a surface we can see, and imagine the sensation might have if we felt it. • Texture can also be portrayed in an image, suggested to the eye which can refer to our memories of surfaces we have touched.
TEXTURE IN 2D
• The tradition of rendering simulated textures goes back to classical antiquity in the paintings of the Hellenistic Period. • The term Hellenistic refers to the spread of Greek culture beyond Greece— especially to the East—as a result of Alexander’s conquests • Battle of Issus 333BCmosaic-detail
Battle of Issus, from the House of the Faun, Pompeii, c. 80 b.c., Roman copy after an original Greek fresco of c. 300 b.c. Mosaic, 106. × 201. in. (271 × 512 cm). Also known as the “Alexander Mosaic”.
• In 2D, actual textures are found in collages which may glue on a surface real objects such as newspaper clippings, tickets, cloth, coins as elements of the composition. • Girl with a Mandolin Pablo Picasso
Texture from the artist’s handling of paint and brush
Impressionist and Expressionist paintings possess an immediate physical presence that invites TOUCH. Alfred Sisley, Bridge at Villeneuve-la-Garenne Vincent Van Gogh, The Red Vineyard
TEXTURE IN 3D
• Actual texture can be found in the natural quality of the medium. • The sculptor may also choose to enhance or to modify the original qualities of the material.
• Praxiteles enhanced the marble medium which he polished to a high sheen, giving the marble a sensuous glow to simulate the texture of the skin. Hermes bearing the infant Dionysus
• French sculptor Auguste Rodin turned away from the classical “finish” and cultivated a rough and lively surface to the effect the interplay of light on the sculptural form. • He often leaves a part of the work unfinished for the viewer to complete in his or her imagination. • The Walking Man
• T’ang potters (618906) usually leave the lower section of their jars unglazed to bring out the contrast between the glazed area and the even neutral biscuit of the body.
• Two traditions can be distinguished in the study of textures in art. – Ideal of the finished surface. Long dominant tradition of placing value on smooth, lustrous textures that are associated with costly materials accessible to the elite, such as different kinds of marble, gold, precious silks. – Zen aesthetics of Asian art. The zen concept of sabi (the values of rustic unpretentiousness of archaic imperfection, apparent simplicity of effortlessness in execution)
The ideal of the “finished” surface
The European beaux arts academies strengthened the old tradition by formulating a hierarchy of materials in art.
• Marble was the most favored material in sculpture. • Oil on canvas for painting. • Donatello, “David”
• Only works in these media could be considered for salon competitions, and those in other materials were not deemed to merit serious consideration. • Raphael’s Marriage of the Virgin
The ideal of imperfection
• Sabi literally means “loneliness” or “solitude” • In Zen aesthetics, irregularities of form, imperfections of glaze, slight damages and scars, and a certain air of incompleteness show that “beauty is not captive to perfection”
CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO TEXTURE
• Modernist artists (Impressionists, Cubists and Futurists) reacted to the structures of the academy. • They released art from the obligatory conventions of medium and opened endless artistic possibilities in terms of new materials and textures, as well as techniques producing textures.
• Fumage in which the paper is darkened or smoked with soot from a flame. • Wolfgang Paalen’s fumage
One can create art from all kinds of materials and textures, that the artist does well to respect and appreciate the natural beauty of...
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