BY MANEESHA .R
Shampoo is a hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. The goal is to remove the unwanted build-up without stripping out so much sebum as to make hair unmanageable.
Shampoo is generally made by combining a surfactant, most often sodium lauryl sulfate and/or sodium laureth sulfate with a co-surfactant, most often cocamidopropyl betaine in water to form a thick, viscous liquid. Other essential ingredients include salt (sodium chloride), which is used to adjust the viscosity, a preservative and fragrance. Other ingredients are generally included in shampoo formulations to maximize the following qualities: * Pleasing foam
* Easy rinsing
* Minimal skin/eye irritation
* Feels thick and/or creamy
* Pleasant fragrance
* Low toxicity
* Good biodegradability
* Slightly acidic (pH less than 7)
* No damage to hair
Many shampoos are pearlescent. This effect is achieved by addition of tiny flakes of suitable materials, e.g. glycol distearate, chemically derived from stearic acid, which may have either animal or vegetable origins. Glycol distearate is a wax. Many shampoos also include silicone to provide conditioning benefits. Commonly used ingredients:
* Ammonium chloride
* Ammonium lauryl sulfate
* Sodium laureth sulfate is derived from coconut oils and is used to soften water and create a lather. There was some concern over this particular ingredient circa 1998 about this chemical being a carcinogen, but that has been disproved. * Sodium lauryl sulfate
* Sodium Lauroamphoacetate is naturally derived from coconut oils and is used as a cleanser and counter-irritant. This is the ingredient that makes the product tear-free. * Polysorbate 20 (abbreviated as PEG(20)) is a mild glycol based surfactant that is used to solubilize fragrance oils and essential oils; meaning it causes liquid to spread across and penetrate the surface of a solid (i.e. your hair). * Polysorbate 80 (abbreviated as PEG(80)) is a glycol used to emulsify (or disperse) oils in water (so the oils don’t float on top like Italian salad dressing). * PEG-150 Distearate is a simple thickener.
* Citric Acid is naturally derived from citrus fruits and is used as an antioxidant to preserve the oils in the product. While it is a severe eye-irritant, the Sodium Lauroamphoacetate counteracts that property. Citric acid is used to adjust the pH down to approximately 5.5. It is a fairly weak acid which makes the adjustment easier. Shampoos usually are at pH 5.5 because at slightly acidic pH the scales on a hair follicle lay flat making the hair feel smooth and look shiny. It also has a small amount of preservative action. Citric acid as opposed to any other acid will prevent bacterial growth. * Quaternium-15 is used as a bacterial/fungicidal preservative. * Polyquaternium-10 has nothing to do with the chemical Quaternium-15. This chemical acts as the conditioning ingredient, providing moisture and fullness to the hair. * Di-PPG-2 myreth-10 adipate is a water-dispersible emollient that forms clear solutions with surfactant systems * Methylisothiazolinone or MIT, a powerful biocide and preservative.
Methylisothiazolinone, or MIT is an ingredient used in many commercial shampoos. MIT and its closely related analog, chloromethylisothiazolinone or CMIT, affect the ability of young or developing...
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